đê cương ôn tập anh văn 12

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Revion of basic grammar         Nguyễn Văn Đường

NỘI DUNG ÔN TẬP KIẾN THỨC NGÔN NGỮ CƠ BẢN TIẾNG ANH 12

 

THÌ CỦA ĐỘNG TỪ:

I- Hieän taïi ñôn (Simple Present):

1) Caùch thaønh laäp:

- Caâu khaúng ñònh:  S + V(s/es);    S + am/is/are

- Caâu phuû ñònh:  S + do/does + not + V;  S + am/is/are + not

- Caâu hoûi:   Do/Does + S + V  Am/Is/Are + S?

2) Caùch duøng chính: Thì hieän taïi ñôn ñöôïc duøng ñeå dieãn taû:

2.1 Moät thoùi quen, moät haønh ñoäng ñöôïc laëp ñi laëp laïi thöôøng xuyeân. Trong caâu thöôøng coù caùc traïng töø: always, often, usually, sometimes, seldom, rarely, every day/week/month …

Ex:  Mary often gets up early in the morning.

2.2 Moät söï thaät luùc naøo cuõng ñuùng, moät chaân lyù.

Ex:  The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.

2.3 Moät haønh ñoäng trong töông lai ñaõ ñöôïc ñöa vaøo chöông trình,keá hoaïch.

Ex:  The last train leaves at 4.45.

II- Hieän taïi tieáp dieãn (Present Continuous):

1) Caùch thaønh laäp:

- Caâu khaúng ñònh  S + am/is/are + V-ing

- Caâu phuû ñònh  S + am/is/are + not + V-ing  - Caâu hoûi: Am/Is/Are + S + V-ing?

2) Caùch duøng chính: Thì hieän taïi tieáp dieãn duøng ñeå dieãn taû:

2.1 Moät haønh ñoäng ñang dieãn ra ôû hieän taïi (trong luùc noùi); sau caâu meänh leänh, ñeà nghò. Trong caâu thöôøng coù caùc traïng töø: now, right now, at the moment, at present, …

Ex:  - What are you doing at the moment?  - I’m writing a letter.

- Be quiet! My mother is sleeping.   - Look! The bus is coming.

2.2 Moät haønh ñoäng ñaõ ñöôïc leân keá hoaïch thöïc hieän trong töông lai gaàn.

Ex:  - What are you doing tonight?

- I am going to the cinema with my father.

2.3 Moät haønh ñoäng nhaát thôøi khoâng keùo daøi laâu, thöôøng duøng vôùi today, this week, this month, these days, …

Ex:  - What is your daughter doing these days?

- She is studying English at the foreign language center.

3) Nhöõng ñoäng töø khoâng ñöôïc duøng ôû thì HTTD:

3.1 Ñoäng töø chæ giaùc quan: hear, see, smell, taste,

3.2 Ñoäng töø chæ tình caûm, caûm xuùc: love, hate, like, dislike, want, wish

3.3 Ñoäng töø chæ traïng thaùi, söï lieân heä, sôû höõu: look, seem, appear, have, own, belong to, need, …

3.4 Ñoäng töø chæ sinh hoaït trí tueä: agree, understand, remember, know, be, stop, drop, turn off/on, forget, break, meet,

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Revion of basic grammar         Nguyễn Văn Đường

III- Hieän taïi hoaøn thaønh (Present Perfect):

1) Caùch thaønh laäp:

- Caâu khaúng ñònh  S + have/has+ V3/ed

- Caâu phuû ñònh  S + have/has + not + V3/ed - Caâu hoûi: Have/Has + S + V3/ed?

2) Caùch duøng chính: Thì HTHT duøng ñeå dieãn taû:

2.1 Moät haønh ñoäng xaûy ra trong quaù khöù khoâng xaùc ñònh roõ thôøi ñieåm.

Ex:  Have you had breakfast? – No, I haven’t.

2.2 Moät haønh ñoäng xaûy ra trong quaù khöù, coøn keùo daøi ñeán hieän taïi. (Ñi với since hoặc for)

Ex:  My friend Nam has lived in HCMC since 1998.

2.3 Moät haønh ñoäng vöøa môùi xaûy ra hoc xy ra gn so vi hin ti. (Thường có: just, recently, lately…)

Ex:  I have just finished my homework.

2.4 Trong caáu truùc:

Be + the first/second… time + S + have/has + V3/ed

Be + the ss nhaát + N + S + have/has + V3/ed

Ex:  This is the first time I have been to Paris.

She is the most honest person I have ever met.

3) Caùc traïng töø thöôøng duøng vôùi thì HTHT: just (vöøa môùi), recently/lately (gaàn ñaây), ever (ñaõ töøng), never (chöa bao giôø), yet (chöa), already (roài), since (töø khi – moác thôøi gian), for (khoaûng), so far/until now/up to now/up to the present (cho ñeán baây giôø).

IV- Hieän taïi hoaøn thaønh tieáp dieãn (Present Perfect Continuous):

1) Caùch thaønh laäp:

- Caâu khaúng ñònh  S + have/has+ been + V-ing

- Caâu phuû ñònh  S + have/has + not + been + V-ing

- Caâu hoûi   Have/Has + S + been + V-ing?

2) Caùch duøng chính: Thì HTHTTD duøng ñeå dieãn taû: Haønh ñoäng baét ñaàu trong quaù khöù, keùo daøi lieân tuïc ñeán hieän taïi vaø coøn tieáp dieãn ñeán töông lai, thöôøng ñi vôùi How long, since vaø for.

Ex:  - How long have you been waiting for her?

- I have been waiting for her for an hour.

* HTHT: haønh ñoäng hoaøn taát     > <   HTHTTD: haønh ñoäng coøn tieáp tuïc

V- Quaù khöù ñôn (Simple Past):

1) Caùch thaønh laäp:

- Caâu khaúng ñònh  S + V2/ed;    S + was/were

- Caâu phuû ñònh  S + did + not + V;   S + was/were + not

- Caâu hoûi   Did + S + V?;   Was/Were + S?

2) Caùch duøng chính: Thì QKÑ duøng ñeå dieãn taû haønh ñoäng ñaõ xaûy ra vaø hoaøn taát trong quaù khöù vôùi thôøi gian ñöôïc xaùc ñònh roõ. Caùc traïng töø thöôøng ñi keøm: yesterday, ago, last week/month/year, in the past, in 1990, …                             Ex:               Uncle Ho passed away in 1969.

VI- Quaù khöù tieáp dieãn (Past Continuous):

1) Caùch thaønh laäp:

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Revion of basic grammar         Nguyễn Văn Đường

- Caâu khaúng ñònh  S + was/were + V-ing

- Caâu phuû ñònh  S + was/were + not + V-ing - Caâu hoûi: Was/Were + S + V-ing?

2) Caùch duøng chính: Thì QKTD duøng ñeå dieãn taû:

2.1 Moät haønh ñoäng ñang xaûy ra vaøo moät thôøi ñieåm xaùc ñònh trong quaù khöù.

Ex:  - She was studying her lesson at 7 last night.

- What were you doing from 3pm to 6pm yesterday?

- I was practising English at that time.

2.2 Moät haønh ñoäng ñang xaûy ra  ôû quaù khöù (Were/Was + V-ing) thì coù moät haønh ñoäng khaùc xen vaøo (V2/ed).              Ex:               - He was sleeping when I came.

- While my mother was cooking dinner, the phone rang.

2.3 Hai haønh ñoäng dieãn ra song song cuøng luùc trong quaù khöù.

Ex:  - While I was doing my homework, my brother was playing video games.

VII- Quaù khöù hoaøn thaønh (Past Perfect):

1) Caùch thaønh laäp:

- Caâu khaúng ñònh  S + had + V3/ed

- Caâu phuû ñònh  S + had+ not + V3/ed 

- Caâu hoûi   Had + S + V3/ed?

2) Caùch duøng chính:

Thì QKHT duøng ñeå dieãn taû:

2.1 Moät haønh ñoäng xaûy ra vaø hoaøn taát tröôùc moät thôøi ñieåm hoaëc moät haønh ñoäng khaùc trong quaù khöù (haønh ñoäng tröôùc duøng HAD + V3/ed, haønh ñoäng sau duøng V2/ed).

Ex:  - We had had dinner before eight o’clock last night.

- Lan had learned English before she came to England.

2.2. Moät haønh ñoäng ñaõ xaûy ra nhöng chöa hoaøn thaønh, tính ñeán moät thôøi ñieåm naøo ñoù trong quaù khöù.

Ex:  - By the time I left that school, I had taught there for ten years.(Tôùi luùc toâi rôøi ngoâi tröôøng aáy, toâi ñaõ daïy ñöôïc 10 naêm.)

3) Thì naøy thöôøng ñöôïc duøng vôùi caùc töø, ngöõ sau ñaây:

* After, before, when, as, once

Ex:  - When I got to the station, the train had already left.

* No sooner … than (vöøa môùi … thì) hoaëc Hardly/Scarely … when (vöøa môùi … thì)

Ex:  - He had no sooner returned from abroad than he fell ill.

--->       No sooner had he returned from abroad than he fell ill.

(Anh aáy vöøa môùi trôû veà töø nöôùc ngoaøi thì ñaâm ra beänh.)

* It was not until … that … (maõi cho tôùi … môùi …) hoaëc Not until … that … (maõi cho tôùi … môùi …)

Ex:  It was not until I had met her that I understood the problem.

--->    Not until I had met her did I understand the problem.

(Maõi tôùi khi toâi gaëp coâ ta, toâi môùi hieåu ñöôïc vaán ñeà.)

VIII- Quaù khöù hoaøn thaønh tieáp dieãn (Past Perfect Continuous):

1) Caùch thaønh laäp:

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Revion of basic grammar         Nguyễn Văn Đường

- Caâu khaúng ñònh  S + had + been + V-ing

- Caâu phuû ñònh  S + had + not + been + V-ing    

- Caâu hoûi:   Had + S + been + V-ing?

2) Caùch duøng chính: Thì QKHTTD duøng ñeå nhaán maïnh tính LIEÂN TUÏC cuûa haønh ñoäng cho ñeán khi moät haønh ñoäng khaùc xaûy ra trong quaù khöù.

Ex:  When she arrived, I had been waiting for three hours.

IX- Töông lai ñôn (Simple Future):

1) Caùch thaønh laäp:

- Caâu khaúng ñònh  S + will/shall + V

- Caâu phuû ñònh  S + will/shall + not + V     

- Caâu hoûi:  Will/Shall + S + V ?

2) Caùch duøng chính: Thì TLÑ duøng ñeå dieãn taû:

2.1 Moät haønh ñoäng seõ xaûy ra trong töông lai:  Ex: I will call you tomorrow.

2.2 Moät quyeát ñònh ñöa ra vaøo luùc noùi:   Ex: It’s cold. I’ll shut the window.

2.3 Moät quyeát taâm, lôøi höùa, ñeà nghò, yeâu caàu:

Ex: I will lend you the money.  - Will you marry me?

2.4 Moät tieân ñoaùn, döï baùo trong töông lai:  

Ex: People will travel to Mars one day.

3) Daáu hieäu thöôøng gaëp:  tomorrow, tonight, next week/month/year, some day, in the future, …

* LÖU YÙ: Caùch duøng cuûa be going to + V:

+ Dieãn taû yù ñònh (Ñöôïc quyeát ñònh hoaëc coù trong keá hoaïch töø tröôùc)

Ex:  I have saved some money. I am going to buy a new computer.

(Toâi ñaõ ñeå daønh ñöôïc moät ít tieàn. Toâi ñònh mua moät maùy vi tính môùi.)

+ Dieãn taû moät döï ñoaùn coù caên cöù

Ex:  Look at those clouds. It’s going to rain.

(Haõy nhìn nhöõng ñaùm maây ñoù kìa. Trôøi saép möa.)

X- Töông lai tieáp dieãn (Future Continuous):

1) Caùch thaønh laäp:

- Caâu khaúng ñònh  S + will/shall + be + V-ing

- Caâu phuû ñònh  S + will/shall + not + be + V-ing  

- Caâu hoûi   Will/Shall + S + be + V-ing?

2) Caùch duøng chính: Thì TLTD duøng ñeå dieãn taû moät haønh ñoäng seõ ñang dieãn ra ôû moät thôøi ñieåm hay moät khoaûng thôøi gian trong töông lai.

Ex:  - This time next week I will be playing tennis.

- We’ll be working hard all day tomorrow.

XI- Töông lai hoaøn thaønh (Future Perfect):

1) Caùch thaønh laäp:

- Caâu khaúng ñònh  S + will/shall + have + V3/ed

- Caâu phuû ñònh  S + will/shall + not + have + V3/ed

- Caâu hoûi   Will/Shall + S + have + V3/ed?

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Revion of basic grammar         Nguyễn Văn Đường

2) Caùch duøng chính: Thì TLHT duøng ñeå dieãn taû:

2.1 Moät haønh ñoäng seõ hoaøn taát tröôùc moät thôøi ñieåm trong töông lai.

Ex: It’s now 7pm. I will have finished teaching this class by 8.30.

(Baây giôø laø 7 giôø toái. Toâi seõ daïy xong lôùp naøy luùc 8g30.)

2.2 Moät haønh ñoäng seõ hoaøn taát tröôùc moät haønh ñoäng khaùc trong töông lai.

Ex: By the time you come back, I will have written this letter.

(Vaøo luùc anh trôû laïi, toâi seõ vieát xong laù thö naøy.)

* Thì naøy thöôøng ñöôïc baét ñaàu baèng By + time (By then, By the time, By the end of this week/month/year).

XII- Töông lai hoaøn thaønh tieáp dieãn (Future Perfect Continuous):

1) Caùch thaønh laäp:

- Caâu khaúng ñònh  S + will/shall + have + been + V-ing

- Caâu phuû ñònh  S + will/shall + not + have + been + V-ing

- Caâu hoûi   Will/Shall + S + have + been + V-ing?

2) Caùch duøng chính: Thì TLHTTD duøng ñeå nhaán maïnh tính LIEÂN TUÏC cuûa haønh ñoäng so vôùi moät thôøi ñieåm naøo ñoù hoaëc haønh ñoäng khaùc trong töông lai.

Ex:  - By next month, he will have been working in the office for ten years.

- When George gets his degree, he will have been studying at Oxford for four years.

DẠNG BỊ ĐỘNG (PASSIVE VOICE):    Cấu trúc khái quát: S + be + V-ed/3

                  (thì)

Cách chuyển:

            Active:        S    +      V   +      Obj.

 

 

 

  Passive:     S   +    Be  +  V-ed/3  +   ( by Obj)

 

Cấu trúc cụ thể:

Tenses

Active

Passive

1. Simple present

S + V(s/es)

S + am / is / are + V-ed/3

2. Present continuous

S + am/is/are +V-ing

S + am/is/are + being + V-ed/3

3. Present perfect

S + has/have + Ved/3

S + has/have + been + V-ed/3

4. Simple past

S + Ved/2

S + was/ were + V-ed/3

5. Past continuous

S + was/ were +V-ing

S + was/ were + being + V-ed/3

6. Past perfect

S + had + Ved/3

S + had + been + V-ed/3

7. Simple future

S + will + V(o)

S + will + be + V-ed/3

8. Modal verbs: can,could,will,would,shall,should,may,

might,must,used to ,have to,has to,had to…

S + can/could/should/must/may + Vo

S + can/must … + be + V-ed/3

9. Động từ đặc biệt:

Have / Get

S + have + O1 (person) + V(0) + O2 (thing)

I had him repair my bicycle yesterday.

S + have + O2 (thing) + V-ed/3

I had my bicycle repaired yesterday.

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Revion of basic grammar         Nguyễn Văn Đường

 

 

S + get + O1 ( person ) + to-V + O2 (thing )

I get her to make some coffee.

 

S + get + O2 + V-ed/3

I get some coffee made.

10. Verbs of opinion (động từ chỉ ý kiến): Say, think, believe, report, …

Sa + say + (that) + Clause (Sb +Vb + Ob)

 

* People said that he had gone abroad.

 

 

*They said that Tom was working in London.

*They expect that the price of steel will go down next month.

+ It + be(thì) + said +(that) - Clause

+ Sb + be(thì) + said - to- V

                               - to have - V-ed/3

> It was said that he had gone broad.

> He was said to have gone abroad.

> Tom was said to be working in London.

> The price of steel is expected to go down next month.

To infinitive

 

To + V0

- They want to invite Tom to the party.

 

To be + Ved/3

- Tom wants to be invited to the party.               

 

Gerund

 

V-ing

- Your parents can’t count on recuing you every time.

Being +  Ved/3

- You can’t count on being rescued by your parents every time.

Notes:

  a. Chuû ngöõ trong caâu chuû ñoäng laø: I, we, you, he, she, it, they, people, someone, somebody… khi ñoåi sang caâu bò ñoäng laø: by me, us, you, him, her, it, them, people, somebody….thì boû ñi.

b. Trạng từ chỉ nơi chốn đứng trước by+ O. Trạng từ chỉ thời gian đứng sau by + O       

c. Neáu taân ngöõ trong caâu bò ñoäng chæ söï vaät, söï vieäc thì  duøng giôùi töø “with” thay cho “by” tröôùc taân ngöõ ñoù .

             Eg:: Smoke filled the room             --> The room was filled with smoke.

    d. Chuû ngöõ caâu chuû ñoäng laø anybody, anyone, anything … khi ñoåi sang caâu bò ñoäng phaûi chuyeån  thaønh nobody, no one, nothing … vaø chuyeån ñoäng töø sang ngöôïc theå (tức là chuyển từ khẳng định sang phủ định chẳng hạn).

     Eg:: No one has used this room for a long time. -->This room has not been used for a long time.

 

SO SAÙNH (TÍNH TÖØ/TRAÏNG TÖØ):

* So saùnh hôn:

 

          adj./ adv. + er (neáu tính töø / traïng töø ngaén)

                      S + V +              more + adj./ adv. + than + noun/ pronoun (tính töø / traïng töø daøi)

          less + adj./ adv. (ít hôn)

 

Ex:  Lan: How shall we travel? By car or by train?

 Tom: Let’s go by car. It’s cheaper. (Don’t go by train. It’s more expensive.)

  Today is hotter than yesterday.

  This chair is more comfortable than the other.

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Revion of basic grammar         Nguyễn Văn Đường

  He speaks Spanish more fluently than I.

  I am less rich than you.

It’s cheaper to go by car than by train.

  Going by train is more expensive than going by car.

 

* So saùnh nhaát:

 

       adj./adv.+ est (neáu tính töø/traïng töø ngaén)         

  S + V + The +    most adj./adv. (neáu tính töø/traïng töø daøi)           

                                                                  least adj./adv. (ít nhaát)                                                                                 

 

       Ex.    Join is the tallest boy in the family. (in + danh töø ñeám ñöôïc soá ít)

  Mary is the shortest of the three sisters. (of  + danh töø ñeám ñöôïc soá nhieàu)

  These shoes are the least expensive of all.

What is the longest river in the world?

What is the most enjoyable holiday you’ve ever had?

 @Ghi nhôù:

Adj/adv

So saùnh hôn

So saùnh nhaát

Ngaén (moät aâm)

Cheaper/ faster

(the) cheapest/ fastest

Daøi (hai aâm trôû leân)

More expensive

The most expensive

=> Löu yù:

* Moät soá tính töø hai vaàn ñöôïc söû duïng gioáng nhö tính töø ngaén thöôøng coù chöû caùi:

cuoái laø y        - ier (s. saùnh hôn), y        - iest (s.saùnh nhaát):

  lucky   luckier/luckiest  early   earlier/earliest

  easy   easier/easiest  pretty   prettier/prettiest

 Ex:  You are luckier than me.

  You are the luckiest man, you can love the prettiest girl in our class.

 * Nhöng traïng töø coù ñuoâi –ly thì ta duøng coâng thöùc bình thöôøng: more slowly/the most slowly; more seriously/the most seriously; more quietly/the most quietly …

 Ex: Can you walk a bit more slowly?

  • Caùc tröôøng hôïp ngoaïi leä:

Tính töø/traïng töø

So saùnh hôn

So saùnh nhaát

1. good/well

- better

- the best

2. bad/badly

- worse

- the worst

3. many/much

- more

- the most

4. little

- less

- the least

5. far

- farther

- further

- the farthest  (Veà khoaûng caùch)

- the furthest  (Veà thôøi gian)

6. near

- nearer

- the nearest  (Veà khoaûng caùch)

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Revion of basic grammar         Nguyễn Văn Đường

 

 

- next            (Veà thöù töï)

7. late

- later

- the latest (Veà thôøi gian)

- last  (Veà thöù töï)

8. old

- older

- elder

- the oldest (Veà tuoåi taùc)

- the eldest (Veà caáp baäc hôn laø tuoåi taùc)

 

Exercise 1: Choose the best answer:

1. Of the four dresses, I like the red one ……………… .

 A. more B. better  C. best  D. better than

2. Tom is the ………………. person we know.

 A. happy B. happier  C. happiest  D. the happiest

3. Does Fred feel ……………….. today than he did yesterday?

 A. weller B. the best  C. well  D. better

4. This poster is ………………….. than the one in the hall.

 A. colourful B. colourfuller C. more colourful D. the most calourful

5. This vegetable soup tastes very …………….. .

 A. good Bx. best  C. better  D. the best

6. Jane is the ………………………… athletic of all the women.

 A. least B. less  C. smaller  D. more

7. My cat is the ……………………. of the two.

 A. pretty B. prettier  C. prettiest  D. the most pretty

8. Jim has as ……………….. opportunities to play tennis as I have.

 A. few B. fewer C. fewer than  D. few as

9. A new house is …………………… than an old one.

 A. expensive B. as expensive C. more expensive D. most expensive

10. Nobody is ………………. than Miss Snow.

 A. happier B. happy  C. more happy  D. the happiest

11. That recipe calls ………………… more sugar than mine does.

 A. much B. many  C. manier   D. mucher

12. The museum is the ………………….. away of three building. 

A. further B. furthest  C. more further  D. the furthest

13. Today English is the ………………………….. of languages.

 A. internationally  B. international C. most internationally D. most international

14. The teacher speaks Enlish ……………….. than we do.

 A. fluently B. more fluent C. most fluent  D. more fluently

15. Is this book ………………………… the one you read last week?

A. interesting     B. the most interesting    C. more interesting than    D. more interested than

Exercise 2: Choose the best answer.

1. Yesterday the temperature was nine degrees. Today it’s only six degrees.

  A. It’s colder today than it was yesterday. B. It’s was colder yesterday than it is today.

  C. yesterday was colder than today.   D. Today is as cold as it was yesterday.

2. The journey takes four hours by car and five hours by train.

  A. It takes more time to travel by car  than by  train.

  B. It takes more time to travel by train than by car.

  C. It takes less time to travel by train than by car.

  D. It take more time to travel by train than by car.

3. Chris and Joe both did badly in the exam. Chris got 20% but Joe only got 15%.

  A. Joe did better than Chris in the exam. B. Joe did more than Chris in the exam.

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Revion of basic grammar         Nguyễn Văn Đường

  C. Joe did worse than Chris in the exam. D. Joe didn’t do worse than Chris in the exam.

4. I expected my friends to arrive at about four o’clock. In fact they arrived at 2.30.

 A. My friends arrive earlier than I expected.  

B. My friends didn’t arrive earlier than I expected.

 C. My friends arrived as early as I expected.

 D. My friends arrived earlier than I expected.

5. We were very busy at work today. We are not as busy as that every day.

  A. We were busier at work today  than usual. 

B. We were as busy at work today as usual.

  C. We weren’t busier at work today  than usual.

D. We were busier at work usual  than today.

6. Jane cooks better than her sister.

 A. Jane’s sister cooks better than she does. B. Jane’s sister cooks worse than Jane.

 C. Jane’s sister cooks as well as Jane.  D. Jane cooks worse than her sister.

7. Tom is the best football player in this team.

 A. Nobody in this team plays football worse than Tom.

 B. Nobody in this team plays football as well as Tom.

 C. Everybody in this team plays football as well as Tom.

 D. Everybody in this team plays football better than Tom.

8. Nothing is faster than the speed of light.

 A. The speed of light is as faster as the one of sound. B. The speed of light is the fastest.

 C. The speed of light is faster than the plane.   D. The speed of light is nothing.

9. Jack is younger than he looks.

 A. Jack is older than he looks.   B. Jack isn’t as young as he looks.

 C. Jack is as old as he looks.    D. Jack isn’t as old as he looks.

10. I didn’t spend as much money as you.

 A. You spent more money than I did.   B. You spent as much money as I did.

 C. You spent less money than I did.   D. You didn’t spend as much money as I did.

 

* So saùnh keùp:

 1.  Moãi ngaøy moät, caøng ngaøy caøng, moãi luùc moät ………      

  ~ Tính töø ngaén:     Adj. + er  - and  -  Adj. + er 

  ~ Tính töø daøi: more and more  + Adj.

 Ex:

  The weather is getting hotter and hotter.

  Jenny is becoming more and more beautiful.     

2. …Caøng …… ( thì ) caøng …… (Lieân quan ñeán hai hay nhieàu söï vaät hieän töôïng.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ex:

The older he gets, the weaker he is. (tính töø ngaén)

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Revion of basic grammar         Nguyễn Văn Đường

The more beautiful she is, the more miserable her parents are. (tính töø daøi)

The more money he gets, the more food he buys. (sau the more cuõng coù theå laø moät danh töø)

The more she knows him, the more she loves him. ( khoâng caàn coù tính töø,  the more coù chöùc naêng boå nghóa cho ñoäng töø)

Ta coù theå keát hôïp taát caû caùc hình thöùc treân vôùi nhau trong thöïc teá söû duïng:

 The heavier the coin is, the more it is worth.

The more we get together, the happier we ill be.   

 The more work he did, the busier he became.

 The more you read, the more knowledge you get.

 The more beautiful she is, the more he loves her.  

GERUND: V-ing “Gerund” laø moät ñoäng töø theâm “– ing” coù chöùc naêng nhö laø moät danh töø. Noù coù theå laøm chuû töø hoaëc taân ngöõ trong caâu:

 Ex: - Smoking is unhealthy.

- Eating fastfood makes me sick.

  - He loves eating ice-cream.

> Sau ñaây laø moät soá ñoäng töø (hoaëc cuïm töø coù giôùi töø) thöôøng ñi theo sau laø moät “Gerund”:

 admit   avoid   consider deny  enjoy  finish

 miss   practice  quit  resent  suggest like

 be afraid of   be interested in be fond of …   bored with

> Moät soá “Gerund” ñi vôùi ñoäng töø “go” thöôøng gaëp:

 go swimming  go fishing  go camping  go shopping

INFINITIVE: to + verb.

> Sau ñaây laø moät soá ñoäng (hoaëc cuïm töø coù giôùi töø) thöôøng ñi theo sau laø moät “To- infinitive”:

 agree   begin  fail  plan  refuse  seem

 advise tell  order   urge   encourage warn

 would like   ask  help   expect want   need  

 Ex:  - He decided to get married.

 - I invited Mary to celebrate with us.

+ Löu yù: Daïng phuû ñònh , ta theâm not vaøo tröôùc ñoäng töø nguyeân maãu hoặc động từ thêm “ing .

 Ex: She told me not to go to class.

 

MOÄT SOÁ MAÃU CAÂU THÖÔØNG GAËP TRONG ÑEÀ THI TOÁT NGHIEÂP CAÀN LÖU YÙ:

1. Not only ..... but also (không những ... mà còn....)

Robert is not only talented but also handsome.

He writes not only correctly but also neatly.

She can play not only the guitar but also the violin.

She not only plays the piano but also composes music.

(Thành phần sau 'but also' thường quyết định thành phần sau 'not only' )

2. As well as (va ... va …): Cũng giống như cấu trúc trên, các thành phần đằng trước và đằng sau cm từ này phi tương đương vi nhau.

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Revion of basic grammar         Nguyễn Văn Đường

Ví d:  Robert is talented as well as handsome.

He writes correctly as well as neatly.

She plays the guitar as well as the violin.

Paul plays the piano as well as composes music.

* Chú ý: Không được nhầm thành ngữ này với as well as ca hiện tượng đồng chủ ngữ mang nghĩa cùng với:                             The teacher, as well as her students, is going to the concert.

My cousins, as well as Tim, have a test tomorrow.

3. Both ..... and... (va ... va): Công thức này dùng giống hệt như not only .... but also. Both chỉ được dùng với and, không được dùng với as well as.

Robert is both talented and handsome.

Paul both plays the piano and composes music.

4. Enough: đủ….để có thể làm gì:

* Đi vi tính t hoc trng t, enough thường đng sau:

S + verb/be + adv/adj + enough + (for somebody) + to + verb…

Ví d:  Coffee is hot enough for me to drink

This exercise is easy enough for us to do.

This motorbike drives fast enough to Ha Dong.

* Đi vi danh t, enough thường đng trước:

S + verb + enough + noun (for somebody) + to verb…

S + verb + enough + for something

Ví d:  I have enough money to buy a car.

They grow enough rice to live.

It’s enough time for us to do the exercise.

Have you got enough vegetable for dinner?

Do you have enough sugar for the cake?

5. Too…: quá để có thể làm gì.

S + verb/be + too + adv/adj + (for somebody) + to + verb ….

Ví d:  The coffee is too hot for me to drink.   

He is too young to love.

He spoke too quickly for us to understand.

The bus drives too fast for us to keep pace with.

6. So/such….that….: đến nỗi mà

* So ….that…. :  - S + be + so + adj + that + a clause (meänh ñeà)

- S + V(thường) + so + adv + that + a clause (meänh ñeà)    

Ví d:  The exercise is so difficult that I can’t do it.

The food is so hot that we can’t eat it.

He spoke so quickly that I can’t hear him.

The bus drives so fast that they can’t catch it.

She is so intelligent that everyone admires her.

* Such…that… : S + be/verb  + such + (a/an)+ adj + noun + that + a clause

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