NGỮ PHÁP TIẾNG ANH PHỔ THÔNG

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Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
Baøi 1: THÌ CUÛA ÑOÄNG TÖØ  
I- Hieän taïi ñôn (Simple Present):  
1
) Caùch thaønh laäp:  
-
-
-
Caâu khaúng ñònh  
Caâu phuû ñònh  
Caâu hoûi  
S + V(s/es);  
S + do/does + not + V;  
Do/Does + S + V?;  
S + am/is/are  
S + am/is/are + not  
Am/Is/Are + S?  
2
) Caùch duøng chính:  
Thì hieän taïi ñôn ñöôïc duøng ñeå dieãn taû:  
.1 Moät thoùi quen, moät haønh ñoäng ñöôïc laëp ñi laëp laïi thöôøng xuyeân. Trong  
2
caâu thöôøng coù caùc traïng töø: always, often, usually, sometimes, seldom, rarely,  
every day/week/month …  
Ex: Mary often gets up early in the morning.  
2
.2 Moät söï thaät luùc naøo cuõng ñuùng, moät chaân lyù.  
Ex: The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.  
.3 Moät haønh ñoäng trong töông lai ñaõ ñöôïc ñöa vaøo chöông trình,keá hoaïch.  
2
Ex: The last train leaves at 4.45.  
II- Hieän taïi tieáp dieãn (Present Continuous):  
1
) Caùch thaønh laäp:  
-
-
-
Caâu khaúng ñònh  
Caâu phuû ñònh  
Caâu hoûi  
S + am/is/are + V-ing  
S + am/is/are + not + V-ing  
Am/Is/Are + S + V-ing?  
2
) Caùch duøng chính:  
Thì hieän taïi tieáp dieãn duøng ñeå dieãn taû:  
.1 Moät haønh ñoäng ñang dieãn ra ôû hieän taïi (trong luùc noùi); sau caâu meänh  
2
leänh, ñeà nghò. Trong caâu thöôøng coù caùc traïng töø: now, right now, at the moment,  
at present, …  
Ex: What are you doing at the moment?  
-
I’m writing a letter.  
Be quiet! My mother is sleeping.  
2
.2 Moät haønh ñoäng ñaõ ñöôïc leân keá hoaïch thöïc hieän trong töông lai gaàn.  
Ex: What are you doing tonight?  
I am going to the cinema with my father.  
.3 Moät haønh ñoäng nhaát thôøi khoâng keùo daøi laâu, thöôøng duøng vôùi today,  
-
2
this week, this month, these days, …  
Ex: What is your daughter doing these days?  
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 1  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
-
She is studying English at the foreign language center.  
3
) Nhöõng ñoäng töø khoâng ñöôïc duøng ôû thì HTTD:  
3
3
3
.1 Ñoäng töø chæ giaùc quan: hear, see, smell, taste  
.2 Ñoäng töø chæ tình caûm, caûm xuùc: love, hate, like, dislike, want, wish  
.3 Ñoäng töø chæ traïng thaùi, söï lieân heä, sôû höõu: look, seem, appear, have,  
own, belong to, need, …  
3
.4 Ñoäng töø chæ sinh hoaït trí tueä: agree, understand, remember, know, …  
III- Hieän taïi hoaøn thaønh (Present Perfect):  
1
) Caùch thaønh laäp:  
-
-
-
Caâu khaúng ñònh  
Caâu phuû ñònh  
Caâu hoûi  
S + have/has+ V3/ed  
S + have/has + not + V3/ed  
Have/Has + S + V3/ed?  
2
) Caùch duøng chính:  
Thì HTHT duøng ñeå dieãn taû:  
2
.1 Moät haønh ñoäng xaûy ra trong quaù khöù khoâng xaùc ñònh roõ thôøi ñieåm.  
Ex: Have you had breakfast? – No, I haven’t.  
.2 Moät haønh ñoäng xaûy ra trong quaù khöù, coøn keùo daøi ñeán hieän taïi.  
Ex: My friend Nam has lived in HCMC since 1998.  
.3 Moät haønh ñoäng vöøa môùi xaûy ra.  
Ex: I have just finished my homework.  
.4 Trong caáu truùc:  
Be + the first/second… time + S + have/has + V3/ed  
Be + the ss nhaát + N + S + have/has + V3/ed  
2
2
2
Ex: This is the first time I have been to Paris.  
She is the most honest person I have ever met.  
3
) Caùc traïng töø thöôøng duøng vôùi thì HTHT:  
just (vöøa môùi), recently/lately (gaàn ñaây), ever (ñaõ töøng), never (chöa bao  
giôø), yet (chöa), already (roài), since (töø khi – moác thôøi gian), for (khoaûng), so  
far/until now/up to now/up to the present (cho ñeán baây giôø)  
IV- Hieän taïi hoaøn thaønh tieáp dieãn (Present Perfect Continuous):  
1
) Caùch thaønh laäp:  
-
-
-
Caâu khaúng ñònh  
Caâu phuû ñònh  
Caâu hoûi  
S + have/has+ been + V-ing  
S + have/has + not + been + V-ing  
Have/Has + S + been + V-ing?  
2
) Caùch duøng chính:  
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 2  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
Thì HTHTTD ñöôïc duøng ñeå dieãn taû:  
*
Haønh ñoäng baét ñaàu trong quaù khöù vaø keùo daøi LIEÂN TUÏC ñeán hieän taïi vaø  
coøn tieáp dieãn ñeán töông lai, thöôøng duøng vôùi How long, since vaø for.  
Ex: How long have you been waiting for her?  
-
I have been waiting for her for an hour.  
*
HTHT: haønh ñoäng hoaøn taát  
HTHTTD: haønh ñoäng coøn tieáp tuïc  
V- Quaù khöù ñôn (Simple Past):  
1
) Caùch thaønh laäp:  
-
-
-
Caâu khaúng ñònh  
Caâu phuû ñònh  
Caâu hoûi  
S + V2/ed;  
S + did + not + V;  
Did + S + V?;  
S + was/were  
S + was/were + not  
Was/Were + S?  
2
) Caùch duøng chính:  
Thì QKÑ duøng ñeå dieãn taû haønh ñoäng ñaõ xaûy ra vaø hoaøn taát trong quaù khöù  
vôùi thôøi gian ñöôïc xaùc ñònh roõ. Caùc traïng töø thöôøng ñi keøm: yesterday, ago, last  
week/month/year, in the past, in 1990, …  
Ex: Uncle Ho passed away in 1969.  
VI- Quaù khöù tieáp dieãn (Past Continuous):  
1
) Caùch thaønh laäp:  
-
-
-
Caâu khaúng ñònh  
Caâu phuû ñònh  
Caâu hoûi  
S + was/were + V-ing  
S + was/were + not + V-ing  
Was/Were + S + V-ing?  
2
) Caùch duøng chính:  
Thì QKTD duøng ñeå dieãn taû:  
2
.1 Moät haønh ñoäng xaûy ra (vaø keùo daøi) vaøo moät thôøi ñieåm hoaëc moät  
khoaûng thôøi gian trong quaù khöù.  
Ex: She was studying her lesson at 7 last night.  
What were you doing from 3pm to 6pm yesterday?  
-
I was practising English at that time.  
.2 Moät haønh ñoäng ñang xaûy ra (V-ing) ôû quaù khöù thì coù moät haønh ñoäng  
khaùc xen vaøo (V2/ed).  
Ex: He was sleeping when I came.  
2
While my mother was cooking dinner, the phone rang.  
2
.3 Hai haønh ñoäng dieãn ra song song cuøng luùc trong quaù khöù.  
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 3  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
Ex: While I was doing my homework, my younger brother was playing  
video games.  
VII- Quaù khöù hoaøn thaønh (Past Perfect):  
1
) Caùch thaønh laäp:  
-
-
-
Caâu khaúng ñònh  
Caâu phuû ñònh  
Caâu hoûi  
S + had + V3/ed  
S + had+ not + V3/ed  
Had + S + V3/ed?  
2
) Caùch duøng chính:  
Thì QKHT duøng ñeå dieãn taû:  
2
.1 Moät haønh ñoäng xaûy ra vaø hoaøn taát tröôùc moät thôøi ñieåm hoaëc moät haønh  
ñoäng khaùc trong quaù khöù (haønh ñoäng tröôùc duøng HAD + V3/ed, haønh ñoäng sau  
duøng V2/ed).  
Ex: We had had dinner before eight o’clock last night.  
Lucie had learned English before she came to England.  
2
.2 Moät haønh ñoäng ñaõ xaûy ra nhöng chöa hoaøn thaønh, tính ñeán moät thôøi  
ñieåm naøo ñoù trong quaù khöù.  
Ex: By the time I left that school, I had taught there for ten years.  
(
Tôùi luùc toâi rôøi ngoâi tröôøng aáy, toâi ñaõ daïy ñöôïc 10 naêm.)  
) Thì naøy thöôøng ñöôïc duøng vôùi caùc töø, ngöõ sau ñaây:  
After, before, when, as, once  
Ex: When I got to the station, the train had already left.  
3
*
*
No sooner … than (vöøa môùi … thì)  
Hardly/Scarely … when (vöøa môùi … thì)  
Ex: He had no sooner returned from abroad than he fell ill.  
-
--> No sooner had he returned from abroad than he fell ill.  
Anh aáy vöøa môùi trôû veà töø nöôùc ngoaøi thì ñaâm ra beänh.)  
(
*
It was not until … that … (maõi cho tôùi … môùi …)  
Not until … that … (maõi cho tôùi … môùi …)  
Ex: It was not until I had met her that I understood the problem.  
--> Not until I had met her did I understand the problem.  
Maõi tôùi khi toâi gaëp coâ ta, toâi môùi hieåu ñöôïc vaán ñeà.)  
VIII- Quaù khöù hoaøn thaønh tieáp dieãn (Past Perfect Continuous):  
) Caùch thaønh laäp:  
-
(
1
-
-
Caâu khaúng ñònh  
Caâu phuû ñònh  
S + had + been + V-ing  
S + had + not + been + V-ing  
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 4  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
-
Caâu hoûi  
) Caùch duøng chính:  
Thì QKHTTD duøng ñeå nhaán maïnh tính LIEÂN TUÏC cuûa haønh ñoäng cho  
Had + S + been + not + V-ing?  
2
ñeán khi moät haønh ñoäng khaùc xaûy ra trong quaù khöù.  
Ex: When she arrived, I had been waiting for three hours.  
IX- Töông lai ñôn (Simple Future):  
1
) Caùch thaønh laäp:  
-
-
-
Caâu khaúng ñònh  
Caâu phuû ñònh  
Caâu hoûi  
S + will/shall + V  
S + will/shall + not + V  
Will/Shall + S + V?  
2
) Caùch duøng chính:  
Thì TLÑ duøng ñeå dieãn taû:  
2
.1 Moät haønh ñoäng seõ xaûy ra trong töông lai.  
Ex: I will call you tomorrow.  
.2 Moät quyeát ñònh ñöa ra vaøo luùc noùi.  
Ex: It’s cold. I’ll shut the window.  
.3 Moät quyeát taâm, lôøi höùa, ñeà nghò, yeâu caàu.  
2
2
Ex: I will lend you the money.  
Will you marry me?  
2
.4 Moät tieân ñoaùn, döï baùo trong töông lai.  
Ex: People will travel to Mars one day.  
3
) Moät soá traïng töø chæ thôøi gian thöôøng gaëp:  
tomorrow, tonight, next week/month/year, some day, in the future, …  
LÖU YÙ: Caùch duøng cuûa be going to + V:  
*
+
Dieãn taû yù ñònh (khoâng coù trong keá hoaïch)  
Ex: I have saved some money. I am going to buy a new computer.  
Toâi ñaõ ñeå daønh ñöôïc moät ít tieàn. Toâi ñònh mua moät maùy vi tính môùi.)  
Dieãn taû moät döï ñoaùn coù caên cöù  
Ex: Look at those clouds. It’s going to rain.  
Haõy nhìn nhöõng ñaùm maây ñoù kìa. Trôøi saép möa.)  
X- Töông lai tieáp dieãn (Future Continuous):  
) Caùch thaønh laäp:  
(
+
(
1
-
-
-
Caâu khaúng ñònh  
Caâu phuû ñònh  
Caâu hoûi  
S + will/shall + be + V-ing  
S + will/shall + not + be + V-ing  
Will/Shall + S + be + V-ing?  
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 5  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
2
) Caùch duøng chính:  
Thì TLTD duøng ñeå dieãn taû moät haønh ñoäng seõ ñang dieãn ra ôû moät thôøi  
ñieåm hay moät khoaûng thôøi gian trong töông lai.  
Ex: This time next week I will be playing tennis.  
We’ll be working hard all day tomorrow.  
XI- Töông lai hoaøn thaønh (Future Perfect):  
1
) Caùch thaønh laäp:  
-
-
-
Caâu khaúng ñònh  
Caâu phuû ñònh  
Caâu hoûi  
S + will/shall + have + V3/ed  
S + will/shall + not + have + V3/ed  
Will/Shall + S + have + V3/ed?  
2
) Caùch duøng chính:  
Thì TLHT duøng ñeå dieãn taû:  
2
.1 Moät haønh ñoäng seõ hoaøn taát tröôùc moät thôøi ñieåm trong töông lai.  
Ex: It’s now 7pm. I will have finished teaching this class by 8.30.  
Baây giôø laø 7 giôø toái. Toâi seõ daïy xong lôùp naøy luùc 8g30.)  
.2 Moät haønh ñoäng seõ hoaøn taát tröôùc moät haønh ñoäng khaùc trong töông lai.  
Ex: By the time you come back, I will have written this letter.  
Vaøo luùc anh trôû laïi, toâi seõ vieát xong laù thö naøy.)  
Thì naøy thöôøng ñöôïc baét ñaàu baèng By + time (By then, By the time, By  
(
2
(
*
the end of this week/month/year).  
XII- Töông lai hoaøn thaønh tieáp dieãn (Future Perfect Continuous):  
1
) Caùch thaønh laäp:  
-
-
-
Caâu khaúng ñònh  
Caâu phuû ñònh  
Caâu hoûi  
S + will/shall + have + been + V-ing  
S + will/shall + not + have + been + V-ing  
Will/Shall + S + have + been + V-ing?  
2
) Caùch duøng chính:  
Thì TLHTTD duøng ñeå nhaán maïnh tính LIEÂN TUÏC cuûa haønh ñoäng so vôùi  
moät thôøi ñieåm naøo ñoù hoaëc haønh ñoäng khaùc trong töông lai.  
Ex: By next month, he will have been working in the office for ten  
years.  
When George gets his degree, he will have been studying at Oxford  
for four years.  
All things are difficult before they are easy.  
Vaïn söï khôûi ñaàu nan.  
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 6  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
Baøi 2: THEÅ THUÏ ÑOÄNG  
I- Caùc böôùc ñoåi caâu chuû ñoäng sang caâu bò ñoäng:  
1
) Xaùc ñònh S, V, O trong caâu chuû ñoäng (V coù theå laø ñôn hoaëc keùp. Neáu laø  
V keùp thì V cuoái cuøng-V chính- ñöôïc ñoåi thaønh V3/ed.)  
2
3
) Xaùc ñònh thì cuûa ñoäng töø  
) Ñem O trong caâu chuû ñoäng laøm S trong caâu bò ñoäng, ñem S trong caâu chuû  
ñoäng laøm O trong caâu bò ñoäng  
) Laáy V chính trong caâu chuû ñoäng ñoåi thaønh V3/ed roài theâm BE thích hôïp  
tröôùc V3/ed  
) Ñaët BY tröôùc O trong caâu bò ñoäng  
Ex: (A) The cat ate  
--> (P) The mouse was eaten  
4
5
the mouse.  
by the cat.  
-
Trong (A), The cat laø S, ate laø V chính, the mouse laø O. Ñem the mouse  
laøm S vaø the cat laøm O trong (P). Laáy V chính ñoåi thaønh V3 laø eaten. Do V  
chính trong (A) ôû thì quaù khöù ñôn vaø The mouse trong (P) soá ít neân BE phaûi laø  
was. Ñaët by tröôùc the cat.  
*
Caáu truùc cô baûn cuûa caâu bò ñoäng laø BE + V3/ed. Sau khi laøm xong, caàn  
kieåm tra laïi coù thieáu moät trong hai yeáu toá ñoù khoâng.  
II- Ñoäng töø trong caâu chuû ñoäng vaø bò ñoäng:  
Tenses  
Simple  
present  
Simple  
past  
Examples  
Lan cleans the floor every morning.  
--> The floor is cleaned by Lan every morning.  
Nam broke the glasses.  
--> The glasses were broken by Nam.  
Present  
The pupil is not doing some exercises.  
continuous --> Some exercises are not being done by the pupil.  
Past Mother was cooking dinner at 6 yesterday.  
continuous --> Dinner was being cooked by mother at 6 yesterday.  
Present  
perfect  
Past  
perfect  
Simple  
future  
The secretary has just finished the report.  
--> The report has just been finished by the secretary.  
The boy had found the key before 9 yesterday.  
--> The key had been found by the boy before 9 yesterday.  
Mr. Brown will not teach our class.  
--> Our class will not be taught by Mr. Brown.  
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 7  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
Future  
perfect  
The students will have written many compositions.  
--> Many compositions will have been written by the students.  
a) The students must do this exercise in class.  
Modal  
verbs  
--> This exercise must be done in class by the students.  
b) We ought to overcome these difficulties.  
-
-> These difficulties ought to be overcome.  
III- Moät soá ñieåm caàn löu yù:  
) Caâu hoûi chuû ñoäng vaø bò ñoäng:  
A) Did your father make this chair?  
--> (P) Was this chair made by your father?  
A) Who repaired your bicycle?  
--> (P) Whom was your bicycle repaired by?  
By whom was your bicycle repaired?)  
A) What plays did Shakespeare write?  
--> (P) What plays were written by Shakespeare?  
) Löôïc boû tuùc töø trong caâu bò ñoäng:  
1
(
-
-
(
(
(
-
2
Neáu chuû töø trong caâu chuû ñoäng KHOÂNG chæ roõ laø ngöôøi hay vaät cuï theå, roõ  
raøng (people, someone, every one, no one, any one, I, we, you, they, s/he, it) thì  
khi ñoåi sang caâu bò ñoäng (by people /someone / every one / no one / any one /  
me / us / you / them / her / him / it) coù theå ñöôïc boû ñi.  
Ex: (A) People built that bridge in 1998.  
-
3
--> (P) That bridge was built in 1998.  
) Ñoäng töø coù hai tuùc töø:  
.1 Ñoäng töø caàn giôùi töø TO: give, lend, send, show, …  
A) John will give me this book. (=John will give this book to me.)  
3
(
-
-
--> (P1) I will be given this book by John.  
--> (P2) This book will be given to me by John.  
3
.2 Ñoäng töø caàn giôùi töø FOR: buy, make, get, …  
A) He bought her a rose. (=He bought a rose for her.)  
(
-
--> (P1) She was bought a rose.  
-
--> (P2) A rose was bought for her.  
4
) Moät soá daïng bò ñoäng khaùc:  
.1 Caáu truùc They/People say/think/believe… that …  
(A) People say that Henry eats ten eggs a day.  
--> (P1) It is said that Henry eats ten eggs a day.  
4
-
-
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
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Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
-
--> (P2) Henry is said to eat ten eggs a day.  
(A) They thought that Mary had gone away.  
-
-
--> (P1) It was thought that Mary had gone away.  
-
--> (P2) Mary was thought to have gone away.  
4
.2 Caáu truùc HAVE / GET + something + V3/ed  
(A) I had him repair my car.  
--> (P) I had my car repaired (by him).  
(A) I get her to make some coffee.  
-
-
-
-
--> (P) I get some coffee made (by her).  
Time is gold.  
Thôøi gian laø vaøng.  
Baøi 3: SÖÏ HOAØ HÔÏP GIÖÕA CHUÛ TÖØ VAØ ÑOÄNG TÖØ  
I- Nhöõng tröôøng hôïp ñoäng töø chia daïng soá ít:  
Neáu chuû töø thuoäc caùc tröôøng hôïp sau thì ñoäng töø chia daïng soá ít.  
1
) Danh töø ñeám ñöôïc soá ít hoaëc danh töø khoâng ñeám ñöôïc:  
-
-
Mary lives in China.  
Milk is my favorite drink.  
2
) Danh töø taän cuøng baèng “S” mang nghóa soá ít:  
news, mathematics (maths), economics, linguistics, politics, statistics,  
physics, phonetics, aerobics, athletics, gymnastics, measles, mumps, rickets,  
diabetes, the Philippines, the United States, …  
-
The news is interesting.  
3
) Ñaïi töø baát ñònh:  
every/any/no/some + body/one/thing  
-
Someone is kbocking at the door.  
4
) Meänh ñeà baét ñaàu baèng THAT/WHAT/WHERE/WHEN… hoaëc cuïm töø  
baét ñaàu baèng TO V/V-ing:  
-
-
-
That you get high marks does not surprise me.  
To master English is not easy.  
Growing flowers was her hobby when she was young.  
5
) Töø chæ thôøi gian, khoaûng caùch, tieàn baïc, ño löôøng, theå tích:  
-
-
Eight hours of sleep a day is enough.  
Five kilometers is not a long distance.  
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 9  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
-
Twenty dollars is too much to pay for that stuff.  
6
) Töø ñònh löôïng + N mang nghóa soá ít:  
-
-
Each of the children has a toy.  
One of my friends is coming.  
II- Nhöõng tröôøng hôïp ñoäng töø chia daïng soá nhieàu:  
Neáu chuû töø thuoäc caùc tröôøng hôïp sau thì ñoäng töø chia daïng soá nhieàu.  
1
2
3
) Danh töø ñeám ñöôïc soá nhieàu:  
Engineers are key figures in our life.  
) Caùc danh töø khaùc nhau keát hôïp baèng AND:  
Scientists and engineers are very important.  
) Töø ñònh löôïng + N mang nghóa soá nhieàu:  
-
-
-
-
Most of the students here work very hard.  
Some books I read last week are written by a famous writer.  
4
) Danh töø luoân ôû daïng soá nhieàu:  
people, police, cattle, poultry, military, goods, clothes, scissors, glasses,…  
-
The police have arrested the robbers.  
-
Sun glasses are used to protect your eyes from the sunlight.  
*
Chuù yù: A pair of scissors is helpful in this case.  
5
) The + Adj chæ danh töø soá nhieàu:  
the rich/poor, the young/old/elderly, the homeless, the handicapped, the  
blind/deaf/mute, the English/Chinese/Vietnamese,…  
-
The poor have many problems.  
III- Nhöõng tröôøng hôïp caàn löu yù:  
) Khi caùc chuû töø ñöôïc noái vôùi nhau bôûi as well as, with, along with hoaëc  
together with, ñoäng töø seõ hoaø hôïp vôùi chuû töø thöù nhaát.  
1
-
-
The students, as well as their teacher, have not come yet.  
The teacher, as well as his students, has not come yet.  
2
) Khi caùc chuû töø ñöôïc noái vôùi nhau bôûi either … or, neither … nor, hoaëc  
not only … but also ñoäng töø seõ hoaø hôïp vôùi chuû töø gaàn nhaát.  
-
-
Neither she nor her friends have arrived.  
Not only the dogs but also the cat is mine.  
3
) A number of + N soá nhieàu – ñoäng töø soá nhieàu, The number of + N soá  
nhieàu – ñoäng töø soá ít:  
-
-
A number of applicants have been interviewed. (Nhieàu)  
The number of days in a week is seven. (Soá löôïng)  
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
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Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
4
) Chuû töø laø danh töø taäp hôïp:  
family, class, crowd, group, club, association, company, team, …  
4
-
.1 Xem nhö MOÄT ÑÔN VÒ - ñoäng töø soá ít:  
My family has three members.  
4
-
.2 Ñeà caäp ñeán TÖØNG CAÙ NHAÂN - ñoäng töø soá nhieàu:  
My family were watching TV at 7 yesterday.  
Health is better than wealth.  
Söùc khoeû laø vaøng.  
Baøi 4: CAÂU NOÙI TRÖÏC TIEÁP VAØ GIAÙN TIEÁP  
I- Ñoäng töø töôøng thuaät ôû thì hieän taïi hoaëc töông lai:  
Neáu ñoäng töø töôøng thuaät ôû thì HIEÄN TAÏI hoaëc TÖÔNG LAI, ta chæ ñoåi  
NGOÂI nhö sau:  
1
2
3
) Ñoåi ngoâi thöù NHAÁT phuø hôïp vôùi CHUÛ TÖØ trong meänh ñeà chính  
) Ñoåi ngoâi thöù HAI phuø hôïp vôùi TUÙC TÖØ trong meänh ñeà chính  
) Ngoâi thöù BA khoâng ñoåi  
Ex: He says to me, “I and you will go with her father tomorrow.”  
--> He tells me (that) he and I will go with her father tomorrow.  
Chuù yù: say to ---> tell  
-
*
II- Ñoäng töø töôøng thuaät ôû thì quaù khöù:  
Neáu ñoäng töø töôøng thuaät ôû thì quaù khöù, ta ñoåi ba yeáu toá laø ngoâi, thì cuûa ñoäng  
töø vaø traïng töø chæ thôøi gian vaø nôi choán.  
1
2
V1  
V2/ed  
can  
) Ngoâi: (nhö treân)  
) Thì cuûa ñoäng töø:  
---> V2/ed  
---> had + V3/ed  
---> could  
shall  
may  
must  
---> should  
---> might  
---> had to  
will  
---> would  
3
) Traïng töø chæ thôøi gian vaø nôi choán:  
today  
tonight  
now  
ago  
---> that day  
---> that night  
---> then  
next week ---> the week after  
tomorrow ---> the day after  
this  
---> that  
---> those  
---> there  
---> before  
these  
here  
yesterday ---> the day before  
last week ---> the week before  
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 11  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
Ex: She said to me, “I met your brother yesterday.”  
-
--> She told me that she had met my brother the day before.  
III- Caùc daïng caâu töôøng thuaät:  
1
) Caâu khaúng ñònh vaø ph ñònh:  
Ñoäng töø töôøng thuaät thöôøng laø said/told.  
Ex1: He said, “I have seen her today.”  
--> He said (that) he had seen her that day.  
Ex2: The teacher said to Peter, “The prize was not given to you.”  
--> The teacher told Peter (that) the prize had not been given to him.  
-
-
*
Chuù yù: said to ---> told  
2
) Caâu hoûi:  
Ñoäng töø töôøng thuaät thöôøng laø asked/wondered/wanted to know  
(
hoûi/töï hoûi/muoán bieát).  
.1 Y/N:  
Ex1: She asked me, “Do you like him?”  
--> She asked me if I liked him.  
Ex2: He said, “Can you speak English, Nam?”  
--> He asked Nam whether he could speak English.  
.2 WH-:  
Ex1: He said, “What is her name?”  
--> He asked what her name was.  
Ex2: She said to him, “Where do you live?”  
--> She asked him where he lived.  
Chuù yù traät töï cuûa S vaø V:  
Caâu hoûi tröïc tieáp  
2
-
-
2
-
-
*
--->  
Caâu hoûi giaùn tieáp  
if/whether + S + V  
WH- + S + V  
-
Y/N:  
“V + S?”  
-
WH-:  
“WH- + V + S?”  
*
said to ---> asked  
3
) Caâu meänh leänh:  
Ñoäng töø töôøng thuaät thöôøng laø told/asked/ordered (baûo/yeâu caàu/ra leänh).  
.1 Khaúng ñònh:  
Ex: The teacher said, “Go to the board, John.”  
--> The teacher told John to go to the board.  
.2 Phuû ñònh:  
Ex: Nam said to his friend, “Don’t shut the door.”  
3
-
3
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
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Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
-
--> Nam asked his friend not to shut the door.  
Many a little makes a mickle.  
Goùp gioù thaønh baõo.  
Baøi 5: CAÂU ÑIEÀU KIEÄN VAØ CAÂU AO ÖÔÙC  
I- Caâu ñieàu kieän:  
1
) Ba loaïi caâu ñieàu kieän:  
.1 Loaïi moät:  
1
Dieãn taû ñieàu kieän COÙ THEÅ XAÛY RA ôû hieän taïi hoaëc töông lai.  
Ex: If it rains heavily, I will stay at home.  
1
.2 Loaïi hai:  
Dieãn taû ñieàu kieän KHOÂNG THEÅ XAÛY RA ôû hieän taïi hoaëc töông lai.  
Ex1: I would buy a new bicycle if I had enough money.  
(
Hieän taïi toâi khoâng coù ñuû tieàn.)  
Ex2: If I were a king, you would be a queen.  
Toâi khoâng theå laø vua.)  
.3 Loaïi ba:  
(
1
Dieãn taû ñieàu kieän KHOÂNG THEÅ XAÛY RA ôû quaù khöù.  
Ex: If John had worked harder, he wouldn’t have failed his exam.  
(
Söï thaät laø John ñaõ khoâng chaêm chæ vaø ñaõ thi rôùt.)  
2
) Toùm taét coâng thöùc:  
Loaïi  
IF CLAUSE  
V1(s/es)  
V2/ed/WERE  
had +V3/ed  
MAIN CLAUSE  
will/can/may… + V  
would/could/should… + V  
1
2
3
would/could/should…+ have + V3/ed  
3
) Nhöõng ñieåm caàn löu yù:  
.1 “If … not” coù theå ñöôïc thay baèng “UNLESS” (tröø phi):  
Ex: We will be late if we don’t hurry.  
--> We will be late unless we hurry.  
Ex: If I have time, I’ll help you.  
--> Unless I have time, I won’t help you.  
.2 Boû IF trong 3 loaïi caâu ñieàu kieän (phaûi coù ñaûo ngöõ vôùi  
4
-
-
4
SHOULD/WERE/HAD):  
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 13  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
Ex: If it should be necessary, I will go.  
-
--> Should it be necessary, I will go.  
Ex: If I were rich, I would buy a new car.  
--> Were I rich, I would buy a new car.  
Ex: If you had asked me, I would have told you the answer.  
--> Had you asked me, I would have told you the answer.  
.3 Moät soá töø/cuïm töø coù theå thay cho IF vôùi nghóa töông ñöông:  
-
-
4
provided that/so(as) long as (mieãn laø)/in case (trong tröôøng hôïp)/on condition  
that (vôùi ñieàu kieän)  
Ex: You can borrow my book provided that you bring it back.  
II- Caâu ao öôùc:  
WISH (öôùc)/IF ONLY(giaù maø)  
V2/ed/WERE  
1
2
3
) Khoâng coù thaät ôû hieän taïi:  
-
-
I wish Peter were here now. (He isn’t here now.)  
If only I had more money.  
) Khoâng coù thaät ôû töông lai:  
WOULD + V  
She wishes Tom would be here tomorrow.  
If only Tom would be here tomorrow.  
HAD + V3/ed  
We wish she had passed her exam last year.  
-
-
) Khoâng coù thaät ôû quaù khöù:  
-
-
If only you hadn’t told Peter about our plan.  
Where theres a will theres a way.  
Coù chí thì neân.  
Baøi 6: SÖÏ ÑAÛO NGÖÕ  
Moät soá töø/cuïm töø sau khi ñaët ñaàu caâu caàn ñaûo ngöõ:  
1
) Nhöõng traïng töø coù nghóa phuû ñònh hoaëc gaàn ph ñònh:  
never, no longer, nowhere else, rarely, seldom, little, not until  
-
He knows little about what she has done.  
--> Little does he know about what she has done.  
She is not only beautiful, but she is also very intelligent.  
--> Not only is she beautiful, but she is also very intelligent.  
) Caùc cuïm töø baét ñaàu baèng AT, IN, ON, UNDER:  
-
-
-
2
-
At no time was Tom aware of what was happening.  
-
In no circumstances would I agree such a proposal.  
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 14  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
3
) Caâu dieàu kieän löôïc boû IF: (xem Baøi 5, I, 3.2)  
-
-
-
-
If anyone asks me, please tell them I will be away for a few days.  
--> Should anyone ask me, please tell them I will be away for a few days.  
If I knew him better, I would give him advice.  
--> Did I know him better, I would give him advice.  
4
) SO/SUCH:  
-
-
-
-
-
I am a student, so is she.  
The day was so hot that we had to stay indoors.  
--> So hot was the day that we had to stay indoors.  
It is such a good book that I can’t put it down.  
--> Such a good book is it that I can’t put it down.  
5
6
) ONLY when/after/by/then/if …  
-
Only after a year did I begin to see the results of my work.  
-
Only by working harder will you pass your final exam.  
) HARDLY/SCARCELY/BARELY … WHEN; NO SOONER … THAN:  
-
Hardly had I arrived home when I had a new problem.  
-
No sooner had she handed in her paper than she realized her careless  
mistakes.  
Necessity is the mother of invention.  
Caùi khoù loù caùi khoân.  
Baøi 7: TÖØ ÑÒNH LÖÔÏNG  
VI- Töø chæ soá löôïng lôùn/nhoû:  
1
-
) A lot of, lots of, many, much: (nhieàu)  
A lot of, lots of + danh töø soá nhieàu/danh töø khoâng ñeám ñöôïc trong caâu  
khaúng ñònh  
Ex: He has a lot of / lots of friends here.  
We need a lot of / lots of time to learn a foreign language.  
Many, much: duøng trong caâu phuû ñònh vaø nghi vaán.  
MANY + danh töø soá nhieàu  
-
MUCH + danh töø khoâng ñeám ñöôïc  
Ex: There aren’t many people living here.  
Does the newspaper have much information?  
-
Many, much sau VERY, SO, TOO, AS:  
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 15  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
Ex: Very many crimes go unreported.  
We had so many exercises to do.  
There is too much salt in the soup.  
He hasn’t got as much patience as I thought.  
2
-
) A few, a little / few, little: (moät vaøi, moät ít / (raát) ít)  
A few, a little: duøng vôùi nghóa xaùc ñònh  
A few + danh töø soá nhieàu  
A little + danh töø khoâng ñeám ñöôïc  
Ex: We’ve got a little bacon and a few eggs.  
-
Few, little: duøng vôùi nghóa phuû ñònh  
Few + danh töø soá nhieàu  
Little + danh töø khoâng ñeám ñöôïc  
Ex: Few people can say that they always tell the truth.  
There is little sugar in my coffee.  
3
-
) A large number of, a great deal of/a large amount of: (soá löôïng lôùn)  
A large numer of + danh töø soá nhieàu  
Ex: He has a large number of English books.  
*
A number of + Ns + ñoäng töø soá nhieàu  
The number of + Ns + ñoäng töø soá ít (xem ví duï Baøi 3, III,3)  
A great deal of + danh töø khoâng ñeám ñöôïc  
-
Ex: A dishwasher uses a great deal of electricity.  
VII- Töø chæ soá löôïng toaøn theå/boä phaän:  
1
-
) All, most, some, any, no:  
Vôùi danh töø ñeám ñöôïc soá nhieàu vaø khoâng ñeám ñöôïc:  
Ex: All rabbits love green food.  
Most students love football.  
I’ve just bought some books.  
She didn’t have any friends.  
We have no Sundays free.  
My brother likes all music.  
Most pollution can be avoided.  
Would you like some beer?  
Have you got any wood?  
I have no time to talk to you.  
*
SOME duøng trong caâu khaúng ñònh vaø caâu hoûi.  
ANY duøng trong caâu phuû ñònh vaø caâu hoûi.  
-
Vôùi caáu truùc OF + the/these/those/my/her/our… + N (ít/nhieàu)  
Ex: Most of my students like English. Some of the food is delicious.  
Vôùi caáu truùc OF + ñaïi töø taân ngöõ (us/you/them/it)  
-
Ex: Some of you have made careless mistakes in your tests.  
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 16  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
* Khoâng duøng caáu truùc NO OF + …  
2) Every, each, both, either, neither:  
- Every, each + N ñeám ñöôïc soá ít (haøm yù taát caû hoaëc moãi moät ngöôøi/vaät  
trong nhoùm)  
Ex: Every/Each room has a number.  
I go for walk every day. (moãi ngaøy)  
Each day seems to pass very slowly. (töøng ngaøy)  
Each of + the/these/those/my/her/our… + N soá nhieàu  
-
Ex: Each of the students has a personal computer.  
Each of + ñaïi töø taân ngöõ (us/you/them)  
Ex: Each of us has our own desk.  
Each ñöùng moät mình hoaëc ñi sau ñaïi töø  
-
-
Ex: They gave us each an English book.  
Each has an English book.  
-
Both, either, neither + N (ñi vôùi hai ngöôøi hoaëc hai vaät)  
Ex: Both his parents are from Europe.  
You can read either book. (one of 2 books)  
Neither car is very economical to run. (2 cars)  
-
Both, either, neither + OF + the/these/those/my/her/our… + N soá nhieàu  
Ex: Both of his parents are from Europe.  
You can read either of the books.  
Neither of the cars is/are very economical to run.  
Both, either, neither + OF + ñaïi töø taân ngöõ (us/you/them)  
-
Ex: Both of us were tired.  
Beauty is but skin-deep.  
Caùi neát ñaùnh cheát caùi ñeïp.  
Baøi 8: MEÄNH ÑEÀ TÍNH TÖØ VAØ MEÄNH ÑEÀ TRAÏNG TÖØ  
VI- Meänh ñeà tính töø:  
Meänh ñeà tính töø hay meänh ñeà quan heä ñöôïc ñaët sau danh töø noù phuï nghóa,  
ñöôïc noái baèng caùc töø quan heä: WHO, WHOM, WHICH, THAT, WHOSE,  
WHERE, WHY, WHEN.  
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 17  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
DANH TÖØ  
Ngöôøi  
Vaät/Ñ.vaät  
Nôi choán  
Lyù do  
CHUÛ TÖØ  
WHO/THAT  
WHICH/THAT  
TUÙC TÖØ  
WHO(M)/THAT  
WHICH/THAT  
WHERE  
SÔÛ HÖÕU  
WHOSE  
WHOSE/OF WHICH  
WHY  
Thôøi gian  
WHEN  
Ex: - The woman who/that is standing over there is my sister.  
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
I know the boy who(m)/that I spoke to.  
She works for a company which/that makes cars.  
The girl whose photo was in the paper lives in our street.  
John found a cat whose leg/the leg of which was broken.  
The hotel where we stayed wasn’t very clean.  
Tell me the reason why you are so sad.  
Do you remember the day when we first met?  
) Meänh ñeà quan heä haïn ñònh:  
Duøng ñeå boå nghóa cho danh töø ñöùng tröôùc. Neáu boû ñi meänh ñeà chính seõ  
khoâng roõ nghóa.  
Ex: I saw the girl. She helped us last week.  
--> I saw the girl who/that helped us last week.  
) Meänh ñeà quan heä khoâng haïn ñònh:  
-
2
Duøng ñeå boå nghóa cho danh töø ñöùng tröôùc, laø phaàn giaûi thích theâm. Neáu boû  
ñi meänh ñeà chính vaãn roõ nghóa. Meänh ñeà naøy thöôøng ñöôïc taùch khoûi meänh ñeà  
chính baèng daáu phaåy “,”.  
Ta duøng meänh ñeà quan heä khoâng haïn ñònh khi:  
-
-
Tröôùc danh töø quan heä coù: this/that/these/those/my/her/his/…  
Töø quan heä laø teân rieâng hoaëc danh töø rieâng.  
Ex: My father is a doctor. He is fifty years old.  
-
--> My father, who is fifty years old, is a doctor.  
Mr Brown is a very nice teacher. We studied English with him.  
--> Mr Brown, who(m) we studied English with, is a very nice teacher.  
-
*
LÖU YÙ: KHOÂNG duøng THAT trong meänh ñeà naøy.  
Mr Brown, that we studied English with, is a very nice teacher.  
3
) Giôùi töø ñaët tröôùc meänh ñeà tính töø: (WHOM/WHICH)  
Ex: The man speaks English very fast. I talked to him last night.  
--> The man to whom I last night speaks English very fast.  
-
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 18  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
The house is for sale. I was born in it.  
--> The house in which I was born is for sale.  
-
*
LÖU YÙ: KHOÂNG duøng THAT, WHO sau giôùi töø.  
The house in that I was born is for sale.  
) Ñaïi töø quan heä THAT:  
4
1
.1 Nhöõng tröôøng hôïp thöôøng duøng THAT:  
Sau cuïm töø quan heä vöøa chæ ngöôøi vaø vaät:  
Ex: He told me the places and people that he had seen in London.  
Sau ñaïi töø baát ñònh:  
Ex: I’ll tell you something that is very interesting.  
Sau caùc tính töø so saùnh nhaát, ALL, EVERY, VERY, ONLY:  
-
-
-
Ex: This is the most beautiful dress that I have.  
All that is mine is yours.  
You are the only person that can help us.  
-
Trong caáu truùc It + be + … + that … (chính laø …)  
Ex: It is my friend that wrote this sentence.  
Chính laø baïn toâi ñaõ vieát caâu naøy.)  
.2 Nhöõng tröôøng hôïp khoâng duøng THAT:  
(
1
-
-
Trong meänh ñeà tính töø khoâng haïn ñònh (xem LÖU YÙ muïc 2))  
Sau giôùi töø (xem LÖU YÙ muïc 3))  
5
) OF WHICH / OF WHOM:  
Ex: Daisy has three brothers. All of them are teachers.  
-
--> Daisy has three brothers, all of whom are teachers.  
He asked me a lot of questions. I couldn’t answer most of them.  
--> He asked me a lot of questions, most of which I couldn’t answer.  
-
6
) Ruùt goïn meänh ñeà tính töø thaønh cuïm tính töø:  
.1 Duøng V-ing hoaëc boû BE:  
Khi ñoäng töø chính trong meänh ñeà tính töø ôû theå CHUÛ ÑOÄNG hoaëc laø BE.  
Ex: Those people who are taking photos over there come from Sweden.  
1
-
-
-
--> Those people taking photos over there come from Sweden.  
Fans who want to buy tickets started queuing early.  
--> Fans wanting to buy tickets started queuing early.  
The books which are on that shelf are mine.  
--> The books on that shelf are mine.  
1
.2 Duøng V3/ed:  
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 19  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
Khi ñoäng töø chính trong meänh ñeà tính töø ôû theå BÒ ÑOÄNG.  
Ex: The books which were written by To Hoai are interesting.  
-
--> The books written by To Hoai are interesting.  
Most students who were punished last week are lazy.  
--> Most students punished last week are lazy.  
-
1
.3 Duøng (FOR + O) TO V:  
Ex: This is the hotel where we can stay.  
--> This is the hotel (for us) to stay.  
VII- Meänh ñeà traïng töø:  
) Meänh ñeà traïng töø chæ nôi choán:  
where (nôi, choã) hoaëc wherever (baát cöù nôi naøo)  
-
1
Ex: He told me where he had seen the money.  
I will go wherever you go.  
2
) Meänh ñeà traïng töø chæ theå caùch:  
as (nhö), as if/as though (nhö theå)  
Ex: We should do as our teacher tells us.  
She looks as if she’s going to cry.  
*
Söï vieäc khoâng coù thaät ôû hieän taïi  
as if/as though + S + WERE/V2/ed  
Ex: He looked at me as if I were mad.  
*
Söï vieäc khoâng coù thaät ôû quaù khöù  
as if/as though + S + had + V3/ed  
Ex: He ran as if he had seen a ghost.  
3
) Meänh ñeà traïng töø chæ nguyeân nhaân / lyù do:  
because, since, as (bôûi vì)  
Ex: She sold the car because she needed some money.  
So saùnh because vaø because of:  
BECAUSE + S + V BECAUSE OF + V-ing/N/N phrase  
Ex: I’m late because I’m sick.  
*
I’m late because of being sick.  
I’m late because of my sickness.  
4
) Meänh ñeà traïng töø chæ muïc ñích:  
so that/in order that (ñeå) + S + (can/could) + V  
Ex: She wants to stay here so that she can perfect her English.  
) Meänh ñeà traïng töø chæ thôøi gian:  
5
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 20  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
when (khi), as (khi/trong khi), while (trong khi), after (sau khi), before  
tröôùc khi), until/till (cho tôùi khi), since (töø khi), as soon as (ngay khi),  
(
whenever (baát cöù khi naøo), no sooner … than/ hardly … when (vöøa môùi … thì)  
Ex: When it rains, I usually go to school by bus.  
We should do a good deed whenever we can.  
*
*
Ñaûo ngöõ vôùi no sooner … than/ hardly … when (xem Baøi 1, III, 3)  
KHOÂNG duøng thì TÖÔNG LAI trong meänh traïng töø chæ thôøi gian.  
I’ll tell you the news when I will come.  
*
Thì cuûa ñoäng töø trong MÑ chính vaø MÑ traïng töø chæ thôøi gian:  
Meänh ñeà chính  
Meänh traïng töø chæ thôøi gian  
- Present  
- Past  
-
-
-
Present  
Past  
Future  
- Present  
6
) Meänh ñeà traïng töø chæ keát quaû:  
so + adj/adv + that … (quaù … ñeán noãi …)  
Ex: The coffee is so hot that I can’t drink it.  
such (+ a(n)) + adj + Noun + that … (quaù … ñeán noãi …)  
-
-
Ex: It was such a hot day that we stopped playing.  
They are such interesting books that I want to buy them all.  
-
so + many/much/few/little + Noun + that … (quaù nhieàu/ít…ñeán noãi…)  
Ex: There are so many people in the room that I feel tired.  
7
) Meänh ñeà traïng töø chæ söï nhöôïng boä:  
though/although/even though (maëc duø) + S + V  
Ex: Though he looks ill, he is really strong.  
*
-
LÖU YÙ:  
in spite of/despite (maëc duø) + V-ing/N/N phrase  
Ex: In spite of having little money, they always enloy themselves.  
Although they have little money, they always enloy themselves.)  
in spite of/despite + the fact that (maëc duø) + S + V  
Ex: Despite the fact that they have little money, they’re always happy.  
no matter where = wherever (duø baát cöù ñaâu)  
(
-
-
Ex: No matter where you go, you need to have friends.  
Diligence is the mother of success.  
Coù coâng maøi saét coù ngaøy neân kim  
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 21  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
Baøi 9: DANH ÑOÄNG TÖØ VAØ ÑOÄNG TÖØ NGUYEÂN MAÃU COÙ “TO”  
I- DANH ÑOÄNG TÖØ: (Gerund)  
Ex: She enjoys listening to music.  
V + V-ing (Gerund)  
Moät soá töø/ñoäng töø sau ñaây caàn coù V-ing theo sau:  
*
enjoy (thích, thöôûng thöùc), finish (hoaøn thaønh), postpone (trì hoaõn),  
avoid (traùnh), keep (vaãn coøn), practise (thöïc haønh), miss (boû lôõ), be/get used to  
quen vôùi), spend (tieâu xaøi, traûi qua), allow/permit (cho pheùp), advise (khuyeân),  
(
recommend (ñeà nghò, khuyeân baûo), give up (töø boû, ñaàu haøng), suggest (ñeà nghò),  
deny (töø choái), consider (xem xeùt), quit (rôøi boû), dislike (khoâng thích), like  
(
thích), can’t help (khoâng theå khoâng), …  
*
*
it’s no use/good (khoâng lôïi ích gì), would you mind (baïn coù phieàn)  
worth (ñaùng, ñaùng ñöôïc), busy (baän roän)  
II- ÑOÄNG TÖØ NGUYEÂN MAÃU COÙ “TO”:  
Ex: I want to learn English well.  
V + TO V  
Moät soá ñoäng töø sau ñaây caàn coù to V theo sau:  
want (muoán), expect (mong chôø, kyø voïng), refuse (töø choái), hope (hy  
voïng), decide (quyeát ñònh), agree (ñoàng yù), plan (döï ñònh), would like (muoán),  
like (muoán), fail (thaát baïi, hoûng), learn (hoïc), afford (coù ñuû khaû naêng/ñieàu kieän),  
manage (xoay sôû), choose (choïn löïa), demand (ñoøi hoûi, yeâu caàu), prepare  
(
chuaån bò), pretend (giaû boä), promise (höùa), seek (tìm kieám), threaten (ñe doaï),  
train (ñaøo taïo, huaán luyeän), wish (ao öôùc), …  
III- TO INFINITIVE OR GERUND?  
1
) Moät soá ñoäng töø coù V-ing hoaëc TO V theo sau khoâng laøm thay ñoåi nghóa:  
begin/start (baét ñaàu), continue (tieáp tuïc), hate (gheùt), can’t bear (khoâng  
chòu ñöôïc), intend (döï ñònh), love (yeâu thöông), prefer (thích…hôn), hesitate (do  
döï), …  
2
-
) Moät soá ñoäng töø coù V-ing hoaëc TO V theo sau laøm thay ñoåi nghóa:  
stop + to V: döøng laïi ñeå laøm  
Ex: I stop to eat lunch.  
Toâi döøng laïi ñeå aên tröa.)  
stop + V-ing: döøng haønh ñoäng ñang laøm  
Ex: You should stop smoking.  
Baïn neân boû huùt thuoác.)  
(
-
(
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 22  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
-
try + to V: coá gaéng  
Ex: He tries to get ten marks.  
Anh ta coá gaéng ñaït möôøi ñieåm.)  
try + V-ing: thöû  
Ex: She tried writing with her left hand.  
Coâ ta thöû vieát baèng tay traùi.)  
need + to V: caàn (nghóa chuû ñoäng)  
Ex: They need to work harder.  
Hoï caàn laøm vieäc chaêm chæ hôn.)  
need + V-ing: caàn ñöôïc (nghóa bò ñoäng)  
Ex: This room needs cleaning.  
(
-
(
-
(
-
(
-
Caên phoøng naøy caàn lau chuøi.)  
remember/forget + to V: nhôù/queân laøm ñieàu gì (chöa xaûy ra)  
Ex: Remember to post the letter when you get to the post office.  
Nhôù gôûi laù thö khi baïn ñeán böu ñieän.)  
remember/forget + V-ing: nhôù/queân ñaõ laøm ñieàu gì (ñaõ xaûy ra)  
Ex: I will never forget seeing you here last year.  
Toâi seõ khoâng bao giôø queân gaëp baïn taïi ñaây vaøo naêm roài.)  
regret + to V: tieác phaûi laøm ñieàu gì (haønh ñoäng saép xaûy ra)  
Ex: I regret to tell you that you failed the exam.  
Toâi laáy laøm tieác baùo cho anh hay anh ñaõ thi hoûng.)  
regret + V-ing: tieác ñaõ laøm ñieàu gì (haønh ñoäng ñaõ xaûy ra)  
Ex: She regretted going to New York for holiday.  
Coâ aáy tieác ñaõ ñi nghæ ôû New York.)  
LÖU YÙ: Caáu truùc S + V + O + TO V vaø S + LET/MAKE + O + V  
Ex: I permit you to go out tonight. They let me visit my parents.  
(
-
(
-
(
-
(
*
Make haste slowly  
Duïc toác baát ñaït  
Baøi 10: TÖØ LOAÏI  
I- Danh töø:  
1
) Danh töø ñeám ñöôïc:  
1
.1 Hình thöùc soá ít:  
a/an + N  
-
“a” ñöùng tröôùc danh töø soá ít baét ñaàu baèng moät phuï aâm.  
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 23  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
Ex: a book, a pen, …  
-
“an” ñöùng tröôùc danh töø soá ít baét ñaàu baèng moät nguyeân aâm.  
Ex: an apple, an orange, an egg, an umbrella, an island, …  
.2 Hình thöùc soá nhieàu:  
.2.1 Hôïp quy taéc: Ns/es  
Ex: books, pens, boxes  
.2.2 Baát quy taéc:  
1
1
1
Soá ít  
a man  
Soá nhieàu  
men  
Soá ít  
a foot  
Soá nhieàu  
feet  
a woman  
a child  
a person  
a mouse  
a louse  
a goose  
women  
children  
people  
mice  
lice  
geese  
a tooth  
teeth  
a bacterium  
a curriculum  
a datum  
a criterion  
bacteria  
curricula  
data  
criteria  
a phenomenon phenomena  
1
.2.3 Danh töø luoân coù hình thöùc vaø mang nghóa soá nhieàu:  
clothes, scissors, spectacles, shorts, pants, jeans, trousers, pyjamas,  
binoculars, belongings, …  
1
1
1
.2.4 Danh töø soá ít vaø soá nhieàu coù hình thöùc gioáng nhau:  
sheep, deer, aircraft, craft, fish, …  
.2.5 Danh töø luoân mang nghóa soá nhieàu: (xem Baøi 3, II, 4)  
police, cattle, people, …  
.2.6 Danh töø coù hình thöùc soá nhieàu nhöng mang nghóa soá ít:  
news, mathematics, the United States, … (xem Baøi 3, I, 2)  
2
) Danh töø khoâng ñeám ñöôïc:  
Laø nhöõng thöù ta khoâng theå ñeám ñöôïc tröïc tieáp (moät, hai, ba, …) nhö milk,  
water, rice, sugar, butter, salt, bread, news, information, advice, luggage, health,  
knowledge, equipment, iron, paper, glass, … (one milk, two milk)  
*
Chuù yù:  
-
-
-
Khoâng coù hình thöùc soá nhieàu (s/es)  
Khoâng duøng vôùi a/an/one/two…  
Coù theå ñi vôùi töø chæ dôn vò ñònh löôïng + of:  
a bottle of milk, two litters of water, a loaf of bread, three sheets of paper,  
four pieces of chalk, a bar of chocolate, a gallon of petrol, …  
3
) Danh töø vöøa ñeám ñöôïc vöøa khoâng ñeám ñöôïc:  
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 24  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
Moät soá danh töø trong tröôøng hôïp naøy laø ñeám ñöôïc nhöng trong tröôøng hôïp  
khaùc laïi khoâng ñeám ñöôïc.  
Ñeám ñöôïc  
a glass (moät caùi li)  
two papers (hai tôø baùo)  
three coffees (ba taùch caø pheâ)  
two sugars (hai muoãng ñöông)  
Khoâng ñeám ñöôïc  
glass (thuûy tinh)  
paper (giaáy)  
coffee (caø pheâ)  
sugar (ñöôøng)  
II- Tính töø:  
) Vò trí cuûa tính töø:  
.1 Tröôùc danh töø:  
Ex: She is a beautiful girl.  
2
6
6
.2 Sau danh töø:  
g) Chæ söï ño löôøng, tuoåi taùc:  
Ex: This table is two meters long.  
He’s twenty years old.  
h) Tính töø coù tieáp ñaàu ngöõ “a”:  
asleep (ñang nguû), ablaze (buøng chaùy), alight (böøng saùng), awake  
(
thöùc), alive (coøn soáng), alike (gioáng nhau), afloat (noåi), …  
Ex: I saw my son asleep on the floor.  
i) Tính töø boå ngöõ cho tuùc töø:  
Ex: We should keep our room clean.  
6
.3 Sau Linking verbs:  
be, become, feel, look, taste, sound, smell, seem, get, turn, appear  
Ex: It becomes hot today.  
6
.4 Sau ñaïi töø baát ñònh:  
something, someone/body, anything, anyone/body, everything,  
everyone/body, nothing, no one, nobody  
Ex: Do you have anything important to tell me?  
6
.5 Sau traïng töø:  
Ex: Your story is very interesting.  
3
) Traät töï cuûa caùc tính töø tröôùc danh töø:  
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 25  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
TÍNH TÖØ  
SÖÏ THAÄT  
Maøu saéc  
YÙ KIEÁN  
nice,  
good, bad, thöôùc  
ugly,  
Kích  
Tuoåi  
Hình  
daïng  
Quoác  
tòch/nôi  
choán  
Chaát  
lieäu  
beautiful  
big,  
small,  
tall  
old,  
young  
fat, thin, white,  
round black  
Vietnamese, wooden,  
English,  
French  
golden  
Ex: A beautiful tall thin Vietnamese girl is standing over there.  
) Tính töø duøng nhö danh töø: (xem theâm Baøi 3, II, 5)  
4
THE + ADJ  
--->  
NOUN  
the poor, the rich, the blind, the deaf, the old, the handicapped, the sick, the  
strong, the weak, the hungry, the disadvantaged, the unemployed, the disabled,  
the living, the dead, the young, the middle-aged  
Ex: The rich should help the poor.  
5
) Phaân töø duøng nhö tính töø:  
Tính töø taän cuøng baèng  
ING  
–ED  
amazed  
amused  
bored  
confused  
depressed  
deserved  
disappointed  
distinguished  
encouraged  
–ING  
–ED  
amazing  
amusing  
boring  
confusing  
depressing  
deserving  
disappointing  
distinguishing  
encouraging  
exciting  
frightening  
interesting  
pleasing  
relaxing  
satisfying  
shocking  
surprising  
tiring  
excited  
frightened  
interested  
pleased  
relaxed  
satisfied  
shocked  
surprised  
tired  
1
.1 Hình thöùc hieän taïi phaân töø (-ING):  
Dieãn taû nhaän thöùc cuûa ngöôøi noùi veà ngöôøi/vieäc gì ñoù.  
Ex: That film is interesting. (Boä phim ñoù hay.)  
(
Ngöôøi xem nhaän thaáy boä phim hay.)  
He is boring. He always talks about the same things.  
(
Haén ta chaùn thaät. Haén luoân baøn veà nhöõng thöù gioáng nhau.)  
(
Ngöôøi nghe nhaän thaáy haén ta chaùn.)  
1
.2 Hình thöùc quaù khöù phaân töø (-ED):  
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 26  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
Dieãn taû caûm giaùc cuûa ngöôøi noùi do ngöôøi/vieäc gì ñoù ñem laïi.  
Ex: I am confused about the question. (Toâi bò boái roái veà caâu hoûi.)  
(
Caâu hoûi laøm toâi boái roái.)  
III- Traïng töø:  
) Phaân loaïi traïng töø:  
1
4
-
.1 Traïng töø chæ theå caùch:  
Cho ta bieát moät haønh ñoäng ñöôïc thöïc hieän nhö theá naøo ñeå traû lôøi cho caâu  
hoûi HOW?  
-
Caùch thaønh laäp:ADJ + LY (moät caùch …)  
angrily  
anxiously  
badly  
beautifully  
brightly  
carefully  
cleverly  
colorfully  
continuously  
easily  
fluently  
happily  
heavily  
loudly  
nervously  
giaän giöõ  
lo laéng  
dôû, teä  
peacefully  
politely  
quickly  
quietly  
rapidly  
hoaø bình  
lòch söï, leã pheùp  
nhanh nheïn  
yeân tónh  
nhanh choùng  
an toaøn  
hôïp lyù  
nghieâm tuùc  
im laëng  
kheùo tay  
chaäm chaïp  
ñaëc bieät  
ngu ngoác  
thaønh coâng  
aám aùp  
(haùt/muùa) hay  
töôi saùng  
caån thaän  
kheùo leùo, khoân  
saëc sôõ  
lieân tieáp  
deã daøng  
troâi chaûy  
haïnh phuùc  
naëng neà  
aàm æ, inh oûi  
hoài hoäp  
safely  
sensibly  
seriously  
silently  
skillfully  
slowly  
specially  
stupidly  
successfully  
warmly  
*
LÖU YÙ:  
fast (nhanh), early (sôùm), late (treã), hard (chaêm chæ) vöøa laø tính töø vöøa laø  
traïng töø.  
Tính töø  
-
Traïng töø  
Jack is a very fast runner.  
Ann is hard worker.  
The train was late.  
Jack can run very fast.  
Ann works hard. (hardly)  
I got up late this morning.  
-
Phaân bieät:  
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 27  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
late (treã)  
lately (gaàn ñaây) (= recently)  
You come home late today.  
He hasn’t been to the cinema lately.  
(Gaàn ñaây anh ta khoâng ñi xem phim.)  
hardly (haàu nhö khoâng)  
(
Hoâm nay con veà treã.)  
hard (chaêm chæ)  
I’ve worked very hard.  
She’s hardly got any money left.  
(Coâ aáy haàu nhö khoâng coøn tieàn.)  
(
-
Toâi laøm vieäc raát chaêm.)  
Moät soá tính töø taän cuøng –LY:  
friendly (thaân thieän), lovely (deã thöông), lively (soáng ñoäng), ugly (xaáu xí),  
silly (ngôù ngaån). Nhöõng töø naøy khoâng phaûi laø traïng töø, neân ta duøng “in a  
…way/manner” thay cho traïng töø.  
Ex: She spoke to me in a friendly way/manner.  
(
Coâ ta noùi chuyeän vôùi toâi moät caùch thaân thieän.)  
4
.2 Traïng töø chæ thôøi gian:  
Cho bieát söï vieäc xaûy ra luùc naøo ñeå traû lôøi cho caâu hoûi WHEN?  
now, today, yesterday, tomorrow, last year, then, still, no longer, already,  
immediately, just, soon, finally, recently, lately, at once, 2 months later/after, …  
Ex: I’m leaving for Hanoi tomorrow.  
4
.3 Traïng töø chæ nôi choán:  
Cho bieát söï vieäc xaûy ra ôû ñaâu ñeå traû lôøi cho caâu hoûi WHERE?  
here, there, somewhere, outside, inside, upstairs, downstairs, everywhere,  
in Paris, at the supermarket, …  
Ex: Tom is standing there.  
4
.4 Traïng töø chæ söï thöôøng xuyeân:  
Cho bieát haønh ñoäng xaûy ra thöôøng xuyeân nhö theá naøo ñeå traû lôøi cho caâu  
hoûi HOW OFTEN?  
never, rarely, seldom, sometimes, usually, frequently, occasionally, often,  
always, once/twice a week, every day, daily, weekly, monthly, …  
Ex: I often get up at 5 in the morning.  
4
.5 Traïng töø chæ möùc ñoä:  
Cho bieát haønh ñoäng, tính chaát cuûa söï vieäc dieãn ra ñeán möùc naøo.  
very, too, so, quite, rather, extremely, absolutely, terribly, completely,  
really, pretty, fairly, entirely, hardly, scarcely, somewhat, enough,…  
Ex: I come here quite often.  
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 28  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
2
) Vò trí cuûa traïng töø:  
.1 Ñaàu caâu:  
Ex: Where are you going?  
.2 Giöõa caâu:  
.2.1 Tröôùc ñoäng töø thöôøng:  
Ex: They often play football after class.  
.2.2 Sau ñoäng töø TO BE, trôï ñoäng töø hoaëc ñoäng töø khieám khuyeát:  
2
2
2
2
Ex: Our teacher is still sick.  
She doesn’t often go with him.  
He can seldom find time for reading.  
2
.3 Cuoái caâu:  
Ex: You sang that song well.  
3
) Traät töï cuûa caùc traïng töø:  
Traät töï cuûa caùc traïng töø trong caâu thöôøng nhö sau:  
Thöôøng  
xuyeân  
twice  
Nôi choán  
He walked to the church very  
Chuù yù:  
Möùc ñoä Theå caùch  
Thôøi gian  
slowly  
last Sunday.  
*
Traät töï treân coù theå thay ñoåi tuyø vaøo muïc ñích nhaán maïnh cuûa ngöôøi noùi/vieát.  
4
) Chöùc naêng cô baûn cuûa traïng töø:  
Boå nghóa cho  
Ví duï*  
1
2
3
4
) Ñoäng töø  
) Tính töø  
) Traïng töø khaùc  
) Caû caâu  
They danced beautifully.  
She is very lovely.  
He studied extremely hard.  
Fortunately, he was not injured in that accident.  
*
Phaàn in ñaäm, gaïch döôùi boå nghóa cho phaàn in nghieâng.  
IV- Giôùi töø:  
) Phaân loaïi giôùi töø:  
.1 Giôùi töø chæ nôi choán: IN, ON, AT  
a) IN (trong): ñöôïc duøng  
Chæ moät ngöôøi hoaëc vaät ôû trong moät nôi naøo ñoù.  
in a box / room / building / park / garden / bag / pocket / kitchen / cinema /  
1
1
-
restaurant / book / lesson / newspaper / picture / pool / sea / river/ water / sky /  
world / queue / row / line …  
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 29  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
Ex: My mother is cooking in the kitchen.  
-
Vôùi phöông tieän xe hôi, taxi hoaëc ñöôøng phoá.  
in a car / taxi, in/on the street  
Ex: Peter arrived at the party in a taxi.  
They live in Hung Vuong Street.  
-
Vôùi danh töø khoâng coù maïo töø ñeå dieãn taû moät ngöôøi ñang ôû taïi ñoù.  
in bed / hospital / prison  
Ex: Tom hasn’t got up yet. He’s still in bed.  
-
Tröôùc caùc ñaát nöôùc, thaønh phoá, phöông höôùng.  
in Vietnam / England / France / Hanoi / London / Paris / the east / west /  
south / north  
Ex: Ho Chi Minh City is in the south of Vietnam.  
Ñeå taïo thaønh cuïm töø chæ nôi choán.  
-
in the front/back of (a car/room/theater …), in the middle of (the room …)  
Ex: I was in the back of the car when the accident happened.  
There’s a computer in the middle of the room.  
b) ON (treân): ñöôïc duøng  
-
Chæ vò trí beân treân vaø tieáp xuùc vôùi beà maët cuûa moät vaät gì ñoù.  
on the door / floor / wall / ceiling / river / beach / coast …  
on/in the street, on a page  
Ex: I sat on the beach.  
They live on Wall Street.  
The picture you’re looking for is on page 7.  
Vôùi phöông tieän ñi laïi coâng coäng hoaëc caù nhaân (xe ñaïp, honda).  
-
on a bus/train/ship/plane/bycicle/motorbike/horse  
Ex: There were too many people on the bus.  
Mary passed me on her bycicle.  
-
Ñeå taïo thaønh cuïm töø chæ nôi choán.  
on the right / left, on horseback, on the way to (school …)  
on the back/front of (the envelope/paper …)  
on top of (the wardrobe …)  
on/at the corner of a street  
Ex: In Britain people drive on the left.  
Write your name on the front of the envelope.  
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 30  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
c) AT (ôû): ñöôïc duøng  
-
Ñeå dieãn taû moät vò trí ñöôïc xaùc ñònh trong khoâng gian hoaëc soá nhaø.  
at the door / bus stop / traffic lights / party / meeting / desk …  
at 69 Tran Hung Dao Street  
Ex: Someone is standing at the door.  
She lives at 69 Tran Hung Dao Street.  
-
Ñeå taïo thaønh cuïm töø chæ nôi choán.  
at home / school / college / university / work …  
at the top/bottom of (the page …)  
at the end of (the street …)  
at the front/back of (the line …)  
at/on the corner of the street  
Ex: Peter’s house is at the end of the street.  
The garden is at the back of the building.  
1
.2 Giôùi töø chæ thôøi gian: IN, ON, AT  
a) IN: ñöôïc duøng  
Ñeå chæ buoåi trong ngaøy noùi chung, thaùng, naêm, muøa, thaäp nieân, theá kyû,  
thieân nieân kyû.  
in the morning / afternoon / evening  
-
in February, in 1999  
in (the) spring / summer / autumn / winter  
st  
rd  
in the 1990s, in the 21 century, in the 3 millennium  
-
Trong moät soá cuïm töø ñeå chæ moät khoaûng thôøi gian trong töông lai.  
in a few minutes, in an hour, in a day / week / month …  
Ex: Daisy has gone away. She’ll be back in a week.  
(
Daisy ñaõ ñi khoûi. Coâ aáy seõ trôû veà trong moät tuaàn.)  
-
Trong cuïm töø in the end vôùi nghóa cuoái cuøng (finally, at last), in time vôùi  
nghóa kòp luùc.  
Ex: Peter got very angry. In the end, he walked out of the room.  
Peter raát giaän. Cuoái cuøng, noù ra khoûi phoøng.)  
Will you be home in time for dinner?  
Baïn seõ veà nhaø kòp giôø aên toái?)  
Chuù yù: on time (ñuùng giôø)  
b) ON: ñöôïc duøng  
Ñeå chæ thöù trong tuaàn, ngaøy trong thaùng.  
(
(
*
-
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 31  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
th  
on Monday, on 5 March, on this/that day  
th  
Ex: I was born on 27 June, 1983.  
-
Ñeå chæ buoåi trong ngaøy cuï theå hoaëc moät ngaøy cuï theå.  
on Friday morning / Christmas Day / New Year’s Day / my birthday  
Ex: See you on Friday morning.  
c) AT: ñöôïc duøng  
-
Ñeå chæ thôøi gian, caùc böõa aên trong ngaøy.  
at 5 a.m., at sunrise / sunset / dawn / noon / twilight / night / midnight  
at breakfast / lunch / dinner / supper  
Ex: I get up at 5 o’clock every morning.  
-
Ñeå chæ moät dòp leã hoäi, moät thôøi khaéc naøo ñoù.  
at/on the weekend, at Christmas / Easter  
at present / the moment / the same time / this (that) time  
Ex: Mr. Brown is busy at the moment.  
-
Ñeå taïo thaønh caùc cuïm giôùi töø.  
at the end/beginning of, at the age of, at first/last  
Ex: He came to live in London at the age of 25.  
*
LÖU YÙ:  
KHOÂNG duøng IN, ON, AT tröôùc all, every, this month/year, next, last,  
tomorrow, yesterday, today.  
Ex: He has worked hard all morning. (in all morning)  
I hope to see you next Friday. (on next Friday)  
*
Caùc giôùi töø chæ thôøi gian khaùc:  
FROM … TO/UNTIL/TILL (töø … ñeán) (= BETWEEN … AND)  
Ex: Every morning he plays tennis from 6 to 7.  
(
Every morning he plays tennis between 6 and 7.)  
SINCE (töø khi - moác thôøi gian)  
Ex: I’ve been waiting for her since 5pm.  
FOR (khoaûng)  
Ex: He has lived in Paris for three months.  
DURING (trong suoát)  
Ex: You have to be quiet during the performance.  
UNTIL/TILL (cho tôùi khi)  
Ex: She’ll be here until Thursday.  
BY (vaøo khoaûng - tröôùc hoaëc ñeán moät thôøi ñieåm naøo ñoù)  
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 32  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
Ex: You must be home by 9.  
BEFORE (tröôùc luùc) / AFTER (sau khi)  
Ex: Come and see me before / after lunch.  
2
) Giôùi töø theo sau tính töø:  
.1 Adj + TO  
1
acceptable: coù theå chaáp nhaän  
accustomed: quen  
agreeable: coù theå ñoàng yù  
applicable: coù theå öùng duïng  
appropriate: thích hôïp  
contrary: traùi vôùi  
dedicated: hieán daâng  
essential: caàn thieát  
friendly (to/with): thaân thieän  
generous: haøo phoùng  
harmful: coù haïi  
loyal: trung thaønh  
lucky: may maén  
married: keát hoân  
open: môû  
pleasant: vui  
pleasing: laøm vui loøng  
polite: lòch söï  
preferable: thích hôn  
related: lieân quan  
rude: thoâ loã  
similar: gioáng  
important: quan troïng  
kind: töû teá  
known: ñöôïc bieát ñeán  
likely: coù khaû naêng/coù theå thích hôïp  
strange: xa laï  
subject: deã bò, khoù traùnh  
true: trung thaønh  
1
.2 Adj + OF  
afraid: sôï  
full: ñaày  
aware: yù thöùc  
glad: vui möøng  
innocent: voâ toäi  
jealous: ghen tò  
proud: töï haøo  
sure(of/about): chaéc chaén  
thoughtful: chu ñaùo, aân caàn  
Sthoughtless: khoâng chu ñaùo, aân caàn  
tolerant: khoan dung  
worthy: xöùng ñaùng  
boastful: khoe khoang  
capable: coù khaû naêng  
careful(of/with/about): caån thaän  
careless: baát caån  
certain: chaéc chaén  
confident: tin  
desirous: khao khaùt  
fond: thích  
forgetful: queân  
1
.3 Adj + FOR  
anxious(for/about): lo aâu  
appropriate: thích hôïp  
available: coù theå duøng ñöôïc  
difficult: khoù  
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 33  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
eager: haùo höùc, haêm hôû  
enough: ñuû  
famous: noåi tieáng  
good (for health/so.): toát  
grateful (for s.th.): bieát ôn  
late: treã  
perfect: hoaøn haûo  
responsible: coù traùch nhieäm  
sorry: laáy laøm thöông haïi  
sufficent: ñaày ñuû  
suitable(for/to): thích hôïp  
useful: coù lôïi ích  
necessary: caàn thieát  
1
.4 Adj + AT  
amazed(at/by): ngaïc nhieân  
angry (at/with s.o./to s.th.): giaän giöõ  
annoyed(at/by): böïc mình  
astonished(at/by): ngaïc nhieân  
bad(at s.th.): dôû  
good (at s.th.): gioûi  
hopeless: voâ voïng  
present: coù maët  
quick: nhanh  
skilful: coù naêng khieáu  
clever: thoâng minh  
excellent: xuaát saéc  
1
.5 Adj + WITH  
acquainted: quen  
annoyed: giaän  
disappointed: thaát voïng  
pleased: haøi loøng  
bored / fed up: chaùn  
covered: bao phuû  
crowded: ñoâng  
popular: noåi tieáng  
satisfied: thoaû maõn  
1
.6 Adj + IN  
honest: löông thieän  
rich: giaøu  
interested: thích thuù  
proficient (at/in): thaønh thaïo  
successful: thaønh coâng  
weak: yeáu keùm  
1
.7 Adj + FROM  
absent: vaéng  
different: khaùc  
distinct: khaùc bieät  
free: ñöôïc mieãn  
safe: an toaøn  
separate: rieâng leû  
1
.8 Adj + ABOUT  
confused: boái roái  
curious: toø moø, hieáu kyø  
enthusiastic: nhieät tình  
excited: höùng thuù  
happy: vui veû  
sad: buoàn  
serious: ñöùng ñaén, nghieâm tuùc  
worried: boàn choàn, lo laéng  
2
) Giôùi töø theo sau ñoäng töø:  
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 34  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
accuse … of: buoäc toäi  
apologise to … for: xin loãi  
apologize for: xin loãi veà  
apply for: noäp ñôn xin vieäc  
arrive in/at: ñeán (nôi)  
ask … for: hoûi … cho  
believe in: tin töôûng vaøo  
belong to: thuoäc veà  
blame … for: ñoå loãi  
live on: soáng nhôø vaøo  
look after: chaêm soùc  
look around: nhìn quanh  
look at: nhìn  
look back on: nhìn veà quaù khöù  
look down on: khinh reû  
look for: tìm  
look forward to: mong ñôïi  
look into: ñieàu tra  
borrow … from: möôïn  
care about: quan taâm veà  
care for: chaêm soùc/thích/yeâu caàu  
charge … with: phaït  
come across: tình côø gaëp  
complain to … about: than phieàn  
concentrate on: taäp trung  
congratulate … on: chuùc möøng  
consist of: bao goàm  
object to: phaûn ñoái  
participate in: tham gia vaøo  
pay for: traû tieàn cho  
point / aim at: chæ … vaøo  
prefer … to: thích … hôn  
prepare for: chuaån bò  
provide … with: cung caáp  
regard … as: coi … nhö  
rely … on: döïa vaøo  
crash into: va chaïm vaøo  
deal with: giaûi quyeát  
decide on: quyeát ñònh veà  
depend on: thuoäc vaøo  
die of: cheát vì  
remind … of: nhaéc nhôû  
result from: do bôûi  
result in: gaây ra  
run into: tình côø gaëp  
search for: tìm kieám  
send for: cho môøi (ai) ñeán  
shout at: la, heùt  
speak/talk to: noùi vôùi  
spend … on: chi tieâu … cho  
succeed in: thaønh coâng veà  
suffer from: ñau, chòu ñöïng  
take after: gioáng  
think about / of: nghó veà  
throw … at: neùm … vaøo  
translate … from … into:dòch…töø…sang  
wait for: chôø  
warn … about: caûnh baùo … veà  
write to: vieát thö cho  
divide into: chia (ra)  
dream of / about: mô veà  
escape from: thoaùt khoûi  
explain … to: giaûi thích  
feel like: caûm thaáy nhö  
happen to: xaûy ñeán  
hear about/from/of: nghe veà  
hope for: hi voïng veà  
insist on: khaêng khaêng  
invite … to: môøi  
laugh/smile at: cöôøi vaøo  
leave … for: rôøi … ñeå ñeán  
listen to: nghe  
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 35  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
*
LÖU YÙ: Ñoäng töø hai chöõ ñi vôùi GO  
go down: (giaù caû) giaûm (# go up)  
go off: chaùy, noå  
go after: ñuoåi theo, theo sau  
go ahead: tieán haønh, thaúng tieán  
go along: tieán trieån  
go on: xaûy ra, dieãn ra, tieáp tuïc  
go out: taét, bò daëp taét  
go away: ñi khoûi  
go back: trôû veà  
go by: (thôøi gian) troâi qua  
go over: xem xeùt, kieåm tra kyõ  
go with: hôïp vôùi  
4
) V + N + Giôùi töø:  
catch sight of: thoaùng thaáy  
give place to: daønh choã cho  
give way to: nhöôïng boä  
make use of: söû duïng, taän duïng  
pay attention to: chuù yù ñeán  
put a stop to: chaám döùt  
keep pace with: theo kòp  
put an end to: chaám döùt  
lose sight of: maát huùt  
lose touch with: maát lieân laïc vôùi  
lose track of: queân maát  
make allowance for: chieáu coá ñeán  
make fun of: choïc gheïo, cheá nhaïo  
make a fuss over/about: laøm loän xoän  
make room for: nhöôøng choã cho  
set fire to: laøm chaùy, ñoát  
take account of: tính ñeán  
take advantage of: lôïi duïng,taän duïng  
take care of: chaêm soùc  
take note of: ghi chuù, ghi nhaän  
take notice of: löu yù, ñeå yù  
Better than never.  
Thaø muoän coøn hôn khoâng  
Baøi 11: SO SAÙNH TÍNH TÖØ VAØ TRAÏNG TÖØ  
I- So saùnh baèng:  
) Caâu khaúng ñònh:  
Ex: I’m as tall as Tom.  
Toâi cao baèng Tom.)  
John works as hard as his father.  
John laøm vieäc chaêm chæ nhö cha cuûa anh aáy.)  
) Caâu phuû ñònh: not as/so + adj/adv + as (khoâng baèng/nhö)  
Ex: This watch is not as/so expensive as mine. (= my watch)  
Ñoàng hoà naøy khoâng ñaét nhö cuûa toâi.)  
She doesn’t sing as/so well as her sister.  
1
as + adj/adv + as (baèng/nhö)  
(
(
2
(
(
Coâ aáy haùt khoâng hay baèng chò coâ aáy.)  
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Trang 36  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
*
-
LÖU YÙ:  
Khi so saùnh danh töø vôùi nghóa gioáng/baèng hay khoâng gioáng/khoâng baèng, ta  
coù theå duøng caáu truùc:  
(
not) + the same + (noun) + as  
Ex: He is the same age as I am.  
(
Anh ta baèng tuoåi toâi.)  
Ann’s salary isn’t the same as Jane’s.  
Löông cuøa Ann khoâng baèng löông cuûa Jane.)  
Coù theå duøng less + adj/adv + than (keùm … hôn) thay cho not as/so +  
(
-
adj/adv + as  
Ex: This watch is less expensive than mine.  
She sings less well than her sister.  
-
Khi noùi gaáp bao nhieâu laàn, ta duøng caáu truùc … times as + adj/adv + as.  
Ex: Their house is three times as big as ours.  
Nhaø cuûa hoï lôùn gaáp ba laàn nhaø chuùng ta.)  
II- So saùnh hôn:  
) Tính töø/traïng töø ngaén:  
Tính töø/traïng töø ngaén laø töø coù moät vaàn hay hai vaàn taän cuøng baèng “y”.  
(
1
adj/adv + ER + than  
fast ---> faster  
lucky ---> luckier  
cold ---> colder  
happy ---> happier  
thick ---> thicker  
dry ---> drier …  
Ex: John is stronger than his brother.  
John khoeû hôn anh cuûa caäu aáy.)  
This athlete runs faster than that one.  
(
2
) Tính töø/traïng töø daøi:  
more + adj/adv + than  
Tính töø/traïng töø daøi laø töø coù hai vaàn trôû leân.  
modern, patient, difficult, fluently, beautifully, …  
Ex: This problem is more difficult than we thought.  
Vaán ñeà naøy khoù hôn chuùng ta nghó.)  
He speaks English more fluently than his friend.  
Anh ta noùi tieáng Anh troâi chaûy hôn baïn cuûa anh ta.)  
III- So saùnh nhaát:  
(
(
1
) Tính töø/traïng töø ngaén:  
the + adj/adv + EST  
thick ---> the thickest  
happy ---> the happiest  
cold ---> the coldest  
lucky ---> the luckiest  
fast ---> fastest  
…..  
Ex: Yesterday was the hottest day of the year.  
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 37  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
(
Hoâm qua laø ngaøy noùng nhaát trong naêm.)  
2
) Tính töø/traïng töø daøi:  
the + MOST + adj/adv  
Ex: She is the most beautiful girl in the class.  
Coâ aáy laø coâ gaùi ñeïp nhaát trong lôùp.)  
(
*
LÖU YÙ:  
-
Ta coù theå duøng the least ñeå chæ möùc ñoä keùm … nhaát.  
Ex:  
This story is the least interesting of all.  
Ñaây laø caâu chuyeän keùm thuù vò nhaát trong caùc caâu chuyeän.)  
(
-
Tính töø/traïng töø baát qui taéc  
Tính töø/traïng töø  
So saùnh hôn  
better  
worse  
farther/further  
less  
So saùnh nhaát  
the best  
the worst  
the farthest/furthest  
the least  
good/well (toát)  
bad/badly (xaáu, dôû)  
far (xa)  
little (ít)  
many/much (nhieàu)  
more  
the most  
IV- Caùc daïng so saùnh khaùc:  
) Caøng ngaøy caøng …  
Tính töø/traïng töø ngaén:  
Ex: Betty is younger and younger.  
Betty caøng ngaøy caøng treû.)  
He runs faster and faster.  
Anh ta chaïy caøng ngaøy caøng nhanh.)  
Tính töø/traïng töø daøi: more and more + adj/adv  
Ex: My wife is more and more beautiful.  
Vôï cuûa toâi caøng ngaøy caøng ñeïp.)  
They work more and more carefully.  
Hoï laøm vieäc caøng ngaøy caøng caån thaän.)  
) Caøng … caøng …  
The more + S + V, the more + S + V  
Ex: The more I know him, the more I like him.  
1
-
adj/adv + ER and adj/adv + ER  
(
(
-
(
(
2
-
(
Caøng bieát anh aáy, toâi caøng thích anh aáy.)  
-
The + SS hôn + S + V, the + SS hôn + S + V  
Ex: The older he gets, the weaker he is.  
(
OÂng ta caøng giaø caøng yeáu.)  
The more beautiful she is, the more miserable her parents are.  
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Trang 38  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
(
Coâ ta caøng ñeïp thì cha meï coâ ta caøng khoå.)  
The more + S + V, the adj + ER + S + V  
Ex: The more he works, the richer he is.  
-
(
OÂng ta caøng laøm caøng giaøu.)  
-
The adj + ER + S + V, the more + S + V  
Ex: The hotter it is, the more tired I feel.  
Trôøi caøng noùng toâi caøng thaáy meät.)  
V- Qui taéc theâm ER vaø EST ñoái vôùi tính töø/traïng töø ngaén:  
) Töø taän cuøng baèng “e hay phuï aâm + “y”  
(
1
Ex:  
large  
easy  
lager  
easier  
largest  
easiest  
2
) Gaáp ñoâi phuï aâm:  
Ex: hot  
hotter  
hottest  
Misfortune has its uses.  
Trong caùi ruûi coù caùi may.  
Baøi 12: CAÙCH THAØNH LAÄP TÖØ  
Moät töø coù theå ñöôïc thaønh laäp baèng caùch theâm vaøo tieáp ñaàu ngöõ hoaëc tieáp  
vó ngöõ.  
I- DANH TÖØ:  
1
) Tieàn toá:  
super-/under-/sur-/sub-/over- + N ---> N  
DANH TÖØ  
overdose  
overexpenditure chi tieâu quaù möùc  
overproduction  
subcontinent  
subway  
NGHÓA  
söû duïng quaù lieàu  
DANH TÖØ  
surface  
supermarket  
saûn xuaát vöôït möùc underachievement ñaït döôùi möùc  
NGHÓA  
beà maët  
sieâu thò  
tieåu luïc ñòa  
taøu ñieän ngaàm  
sieâu nhaân  
undercurrent  
undergrowth  
underpass  
doøng nöôùc ngaàm  
buïi raäm  
ñöôøng chui  
superman  
2
) Haäu toá:  
a) V + -ion/-tion/-ation/-ition/-sion ---> N  
Ñoäng töø  
add  
Danh töø  
addition  
Nghóa  
söï theâm vaøo permit  
Ñoäng töø  
Danh töø  
Nghóa  
permission söï cho pheùp  
combine combination söï keát hôïp  
pollute  
pollution  
söï oâ nhieãm  
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Trang 39  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
conserve conservation söï baûo toàn  
preserve  
preservation söï baûo quaûn  
prevention ngaên ngöøa  
correct  
decide  
discuss  
inform  
invite  
correction  
decision  
discussion  
information thoâng tin  
invitation lôøi môøi  
söï söûa chöõa prevent  
quyeát ñònh  
thaûo luaän  
produce  
provide  
repeat  
rotate  
production  
provision  
repetition  
rotation  
saûn xuaát  
söï cung caáp  
söï laëp laïi  
luaân phieân  
b) V + -ment/-ance/-ence/-age/-ery/-ing/-al ---> N  
Ñoäng töø  
Danh töø  
Nghóa  
chaáp nhaän enrich  
thaønh töïu exist  
söï saép ñaët feel  
Ñoäng töø  
Danh töø  
Nghóa  
söï laøm  
giaøu  
söï toàn taïi  
caûm xuùc  
söï caûi  
thieän  
söï di  
chuyeån  
söï traû  
tieàn  
accept  
acceptance  
enrichment  
achieve  
arrange  
achievement  
arrangement  
existence  
feeling  
arrive  
attend  
build  
arrival  
söï ñeán  
improve  
improvement  
movement  
payment  
attendance  
building  
söï coù maët move  
toaø nhaø  
pay  
maøn trình  
dieãn  
depend  
dependence  
söï leä thuoäc perform  
performance  
laøm  
nhieãm  
ñoäc  
söï phaùt  
poison  
trieån  
develop  
development  
poisoning  
söï khaùc  
recycle  
nhau  
vieäc taùi  
söû duïng  
töø choái  
vuï cöôùp  
differ  
difference  
recycling  
disappoint disappointment thaát voïng  
refuse  
refusal  
robbery  
discover  
discovery  
khaùm phaù rob  
söï thaùo  
nöôùc  
drain  
drainage  
teach  
use  
teaching  
usage  
daïy hoïc  
caùch  
duøng  
employ  
employment  
vieäc laøm  
c) V + -er/-or/-ar/-ant/-ent/-ee/ ---> N  
Ñoäng töø  
Danh töø  
Nghóa  
Ñoäng töø  
Danh töø  
Nghóa  
ngöôøi laøm  
coâng  
account  
accountant keá toaùn  
employ  
employee  
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 40  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
dieãn vieân  
nam  
ngöôøi xin vieäc inhabit  
act  
actor  
fertilize  
fertilizer  
inhabitant  
instructor  
phaân boùn  
apply  
assist  
applicant  
assistant  
cö daân  
ngöôøi  
ngöôøi phuï taù instruct  
höôùng daãn  
ngöôøi ñöôïc  
phoûng vaán  
ngöôøi chuû  
ngöôøi ñöôïc  
traû tieàn  
ngöôøi tham  
interview  
döï  
ngöôøi aên xin own  
attend  
beg  
attendant  
beggar  
interviewee  
owner  
build  
builder  
thôï xaây  
pay  
payee  
ngöôøi giuùp  
vieäc  
calculate calculator  
maùy tính  
serve  
servant  
contest  
cook  
contestant  
cooker  
ngöôøi döï thi  
beáp naáu aên  
ngöôøi gôûi  
tieàn  
sing  
teach  
singer  
teacher  
ca só  
giaùo vieân  
ngöôøi ñöôïc  
ñaøo taïo  
deposit  
depositor  
train  
trainee  
drive  
edit  
driver  
editor  
taøi xeá  
bieân taäp vieân work  
walk  
walker  
worker  
ngöôøi ñi boä  
coâng nhaân  
d) N + -ist/-an/-ian/-ess ---> N  
Danh töø  
act  
America  
history  
host  
journal  
library  
lion  
Danh töø  
actress  
American ngöôøi Myõ  
historian  
hostess  
journalist  
librarian  
lioness  
Nghóa  
nöõ dieãn vieân music  
Danh töø  
Danh töø  
Nghóa  
nhaïc só  
nhaø vaät lyù  
coâng chuùa  
nhaø khoa hoïc  
coïp caùi  
khaùch du lòch  
nöõ haàu baøn  
musician  
physicist  
princess  
scientist  
tigeress  
tourist  
physics  
prince  
science  
tiger  
tour  
wait  
nhaø söû hoïc  
baø chuû nhaø  
nhaø baùo  
thuû thö  
sö töû caùi  
waitress  
e) N + -ism/-ship ---> N  
Danh töø  
Danh töø  
Nghóa  
Danh töø  
Danh töø  
Nghóa  
CN anh  
huøng  
capital  
capitalism  
CN tö baûn hero  
chöùc voâ  
heroism  
champion championship  
scholar  
scholarship  
hoïc toång  
tinh thaàn  
sportsman sportsmanship  
theå thao  
ñòch  
friend  
friendship  
tình baïn  
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 41  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
f) Adj + -y/-ity/-ty/-cy/-ness/-ism/-dom ---> N  
Tính töø  
able  
Danh töø  
ability  
Nghóa  
khaû naêng dark  
söï chaéc  
chaén  
Tính töø  
Danh töø  
darkness  
Nghóa  
boùng toái  
söï phoå  
bieán  
söï caån  
thaän  
söï giaøu  
coù  
söï baát  
caån  
certain  
clear  
certainty  
clarity  
popular  
popularity  
carefulness  
richness  
söï roõ raøng careful  
difficult  
fluent  
difficulty  
fluency  
khoù khaên rich  
söï troâi  
careless  
chaûy  
carelessness  
sadness  
söï buoàn  
baõ  
illness/sickness söï ñau yeáu  
söï laïnh leõo  
söï haïnh  
phuùc  
national  
nationality  
quoác tòch sad  
possible  
real  
possibility  
reality  
söï coù theå ill/sick  
söï thaät  
traùch  
nhieäm  
söï ñaàn  
ñoän  
cold  
coldness  
responsible responsibility  
happy  
happiness  
stupid  
stupidity  
free  
freedom  
söï töï do  
g) Adj taän cuøng “ent” ---> “ence”  
Tính töø  
Danh töø  
Nghóa  
söï vaéng  
maët  
Tính töø  
Danh töø  
Nghóa  
söï thoâng  
minh  
absent  
absence  
intelligent intelligence  
söï kieân  
nhaãn  
söï yeân  
laëng  
confident  
diligent  
confidence  
diligence  
söï töï tin  
patient  
silent  
patience  
silence  
söï sieâng  
naêng  
söï baïo  
löïc  
independent independence söï ñoäc laäp violent  
violence  
II- ÑOÄNG TÖØ:  
1
) Tieàn toá:  
a) dis-/mis-/re-/over-/under-/out- + V ---> V  
Ñoäng töø  
Nghóa  
khoâng  
ñoàng yù  
Ñoäng töø  
Nghóa  
nhieàu/  
ñoâng hôn  
Ñoäng töø  
rewrite  
Nghóa  
disagree  
outnumber  
vieát laïi  
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 42  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
chaïy  
nhanh hôn  
tính giaù  
undercharge  
disappear  
dislike  
bieán maát  
outrun  
quaù thaáp  
khoâng  
thích  
naáu chöa  
chín  
outweigh  
naëng hôn undercook  
laøm  
cöôøng  
underdo  
ñieäu  
misbehave  
misspell  
cö xöû sai  
overact  
khoâng  
troïn veïn  
ñaùnh giaù  
thaáp  
ñaùnh vaàn  
nhaàm  
naáu quaù  
overcook  
underestimate  
chín  
cho aên  
khoâng ñuû  
misunderstand hieåu nhaàm overstay  
ôû quaù laâu underfeed  
laøm vieäc  
quaù laâu,  
quaù söùc  
söû duïng  
sai  
ñaët ôû  
döôùi  
misuse  
overwork  
underlay  
lôùn/phaùt  
trieån hôn  
soáng laâu  
hôn  
baùn reû  
hôn  
outgrow  
outlive  
redo  
laøm laïi  
undersell  
undersign  
keát hoân  
laàn nöõa  
remarry  
kyù ôû döôùi  
b) en- + N/V/Adj ---> V  
Ñoäng töø  
enable  
enact  
Nghóa  
laøm cho coù theå  
laøm gì)  
Ñoäng töø  
Nghóa  
Ñoäng töø  
enlarge  
Nghóa  
môû roäng  
laøm giaøu  
enclose  
gôûi keøm  
(
ban haønh (luaät) endanger gaây nguy hieåm enrich  
2
) Haäu toá:  
Adj/N + -ize/-en/-ate/-fy ---> V  
Adj/N  
beauty  
bright  
Ñoäng töø  
beautify  
brighten  
Nghóa  
laøm ñeïp  
laøm raïng rôõ real  
Adj/N  
origin  
Ñoäng töø  
originate  
realize  
Nghóa  
baét nguoàn  
nhaän ra  
laøm cho  
saéc, nhoïn  
laøm ngaén  
laïi  
sieát chaët  
laøm yeáu ñi  
laøm traéng  
industrial  
industrialize CN hoaù  
sharp  
sharpen  
shorten  
hôïp phaùp  
legal  
legalize  
hoaù  
short  
tight  
less  
light  
loose  
lessen  
lighten  
loosen  
giaûm bôùt  
laøm nheï ñi weak  
laøm loûng ra white  
tighten  
weaken  
whiten  
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 43  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
hieän ñaïi  
hoaù  
modren  
modernize  
wide  
widen  
laøm roäng ra  
III- TÍNH TÖØ:  
1
) Tieàn toá:  
a) un-/in-/im-/ir-/il-/dis- + Adj ---> Adj  
Tính töø  
Nghóa  
khoâng  
trung thöïc  
baát hôïp  
phaùp  
khoâng hôïp  
lyù  
chöa chín  
chaén  
Tính töø  
Nghóa  
khoâng ñaày  
ñuû  
Tính töø  
Nghóa  
thaát  
nghieäp  
khoâng  
bình ñaúng  
khoâng  
haïnh phuùc  
khoâng  
may  
dishonest  
incomplete  
unemployed  
illegal  
inconvenient baát tieän  
independent ñoäc laäp  
unequal  
unhappy  
illogical  
immature  
impatient  
khoâng theå  
indivisible  
unlucky  
chia ñöôïc  
khoâng  
chính xaùc  
khoâng  
kieân nhaãn  
inexact  
unreal  
khoâng thaät  
khoâng haøi  
loøng  
impossible khoâng theå irregular  
baát qui taéc unsatisfactory  
khoâng  
thöïc teá  
voâ traùch  
irresponsible untrue  
nhieäm  
khoâng  
ñuùng  
impractical  
b) inter-/super-/under-/over-/sub- + Adj/N ---> Adj  
Tính töø  
international quoác teá  
overanxious quaù lo aâu overseas  
overconfident quaù töï tin oversized  
Nghóa  
Tính töø  
overnight  
Nghóa  
quaù ñeâm supernatural  
haûi ngoaïi supersonic  
quaù côõ  
quaù caân,  
beùo phì  
tieàm  
Tính töø  
Nghóa  
sieâu nhieân  
sieâu aâm  
kín,bí maät  
keùm phaùt  
trieån  
undercover  
overcrowded quaù ñoâng overweight  
overelaborate quaù tæ mæ subconscious  
underdeveloped  
traû thaáp  
quaù  
underpaid  
thöùc  
döôùi bình  
thöôøng  
sieâu  
nheï caân,  
thieáu caân  
overjealous  
overjoyed  
quaù ghen subnormal  
quaù vui superhuman  
underweight  
phaøm  
2
) Haäu toá:  
a) N + -ly/-like/-less/-ish/-y/-ful/-al/-ic/ ---> Adj  
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 44  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
Tính töø  
manly  
Nghóa  
Tính töø  
Nghóa  
coù buïi  
coù tính caùch ñaøn oâng dusty  
brotherly  
worldly  
hourly  
thuoäc veà anh em  
thuoäc veà theá giôùi  
haèng giôø  
snowy  
rainy  
sandy  
dirty  
coù tuyeát  
coù möa  
coù caùt  
yearly  
haèng naêm  
baån  
daily  
childlike  
godlike  
haèng ngaøy  
nhö con nít  
nhö thaàn thaùnh  
healthy  
magical  
agricultural noâng nghieäp  
khoeû maïnh  
tuyeät vôøi  
statesmanlike nhö nhaø chöùc traùch  
industrial  
natural  
national  
harmful  
useful  
delightful  
successful  
hopeful  
helpful  
peaceful  
scientific  
coâng nghieäp  
thieân nhieân  
thuoäc quoác gia  
coù haïi  
coù ích  
vui veû  
thaønh coâng  
hi voïng  
hay giuùp ñôõ  
hoaø bình  
khoa hoïc  
lifelike  
gioáng nhö thaät  
khoâng lôøi  
speechless  
carelesss  
harmless  
childless  
treeless  
odourless  
foolish  
khoâng caån thaän  
khoâng ñoäc haïi  
khoâng coù con  
khoâng coù caây  
khoâng muøi vò  
ñieân daïi  
selfish  
ích kyû  
childish  
coù tính caùch treû con  
b) V/N + -ive/-able/-ible ---> Adj  
Tính töø  
acceptable  
achievable  
active  
agreeable  
attractive  
Nghóa  
Tính töø  
Nghóa  
coù theå chaáp nhaän defensible  
coù theå baûo veä ñöôïc  
coù theå aên ñöôïc  
hieäu quaû  
coù theå tha thöù  
coù nhieàu thoâng tin  
coù theå quaûn lyù  
coù theå giaët ñöôïc  
coù theå ñaït ñöôïc  
naêng ñoäng  
taùn thaønh  
eatable  
effective  
excusable  
informative  
manageable  
washable  
haáp daãn  
comprehensible coù theå hieåu  
countable coù theå ñeám  
IV- TRAÏNG TÖØ: Phaàn lôùn: Adj + -ly ---> Adv (xem Baøi 10, III, 1.1)  
Never quit certainty for hope.  
Thaû moài baét boùng.  
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 45  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
Baøi 13: CHUYEÅN ÑOÅI CAÂU  
Caùc daïng bieán ñoåi caâu thöôøng gaëp  
1
2
3
4
) Chuû ñoäng – bò ñoäng: (xem laïi Baøi 2)  
) Tröïc tieáp – giaùn tieáp: (xem laïi Baøi 4)  
) Ñaûo ngöõ: (xem laïi Baøi 6)  
) Meänh ñeà traïng töø chæ lyù do, söï nhöôïng boä:(xem laïi Baøi 8, II, 3&7)  
though/although/even though + S + V  
-
*
--> despite/in spite of + V-ing/N/N phrase  
LÖU YÙ: BUT ---> ALTHOUGH  
Ex: Cars cause pollution but people still want them.  
--> Although cars cause pollution, people still want them.  
) So saùnh: (xem theâm Baøi 11, so saùnh baèng/nhaát/hôn)  
Ex: Mary is not as tall as Alice.  
-
5
---> Mary is not so tall as Alice.  
---> Mary is less tall than Alice.  
---> Alice is taller than Mary.  
6
) Ñieàu kieän: (xem laïi Baøi 5, caâu ÑK loaïi 2 vaø 3)  
.1 Khoâng coù thaät ôû hieän taïi:  
Ex: I’m busy. I don’t go to the concert.  
1
-
-
--> If I were not busy, I would go to the concert.  
--> Unless I were busy, I would go to the concert.  
1
.2 Khoâng coù thaät ôû quaù khöù:  
Ex: Peter missed the train because he woke up too late.  
-
-
--> If Peter hadn’t woken up too late, he wouldn’t have missed the train.  
--> Unless Peter had woken up too late, he wouldn’t have missed the train.  
7
) Ao öôùc: (xem laïi Baøi 5, caâu ao öôùc)  
.1 Khoâng coù thaät ôû hieän taïi:  
Ex: Tom is not happy because his girlfriend is not here.  
--> Tom wishes his girlfriend were here.  
.1 Khoâng coù thaät ôû quaù khöù:  
Ex: I am sorry I missed your wedding party.  
--> I wish I hadn’t missed your wedding party.  
.2 Khoâng coù thaät ôû töông lai:  
Ex: They will not attend my birthday party next week.  
--> I wish they would attend my birthday party next week.  
7
-
1
-
1
-
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 46  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
8
) Thueâ/nhôø ai laøm vieäc gì: (xem theâm Baøi 2, 4.2)  
S + V + O ---> S + have + O + V ---> S + have + O + V3/ed  
--> S + get + O + to V ---> S + get + O + V3/ed  
Ex: The machanic repairs my car every month.  
-
---> I have the machanic repair my car every month.  
---> I get the machanic to repair my car every month.  
---> I have/get my car repaired by the mechanic every month.  
9
) Ñeà nghò, lôøi khuyeân:  
Let’s + V  
S + advise/suggest + V-ing  
S + advise + O + to V  
S + suggest (that) + S (+ should) + V  
How/What about + V-ing?  
Would you mind + V-ing?  
Why don’t we/you + V?  
Ex: Let’s go for a ride!  
-
--> What about going for a ride?  
Please don’t play the music so loudly.  
-
--> Would you mind not playing the music so loudly?  
1
0) Nguyeân nhaân – keát quaû:  
so + adj/adv + that clause  
such (a/an) + adj + N + that clause  
too + adj/adv (+ for O) + to + V  
not + adj + enough (+ for O) + to + V  
Ex: The water was so cold that the children couldn’t swim in it.  
---> It was such cold water that the children couldn’t swim in it.  
---> The water was too cold for the children to swim in.  
---> The water is not warm enough for the children to swim in.  
*
LÖU YÙ:  
-
-
1
Trong caáu truùc so/such … that, ta giöõ laïi töø “it”.  
Trong caáu truùc too … to vaø not … enough … to, ta boû töø it”.  
1) Muïc ñích/nguyeân nhaân:  
S + V + to/in order to/so as to + V  
S + V + so that/in order that + S + can/could + V  
S + V + because + S + V  
Ex: They started early to go to school on time.  
-
-
--> They started early so that they could go to school on time.  
--> They started early because they wanted to go to school on time.  
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 47  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
1
2) Laàn thöù … (laøm chuyeän gì):  
S + have/had + never + V3/ed  
S + have/had + not + V3/ed + before  
-
--> It/This is/was the first time (that) + S + have/had + V3/ed  
Ex: I have not eaten this kind of food before.  
--> This is the first time that I have eaten this kind of food.  
-
1
3) YÙ kieán/ñaùnh giaù moät söï vieäc:  
It + be + adj (for O) + to V  
-
--> To V/V-ing + be + adj (for O)  
Ex: It is not easy for me to master English.  
-
--> To master/Mastering English is not easy for me.  
It is more dangerous to drive a motorbike than to drive a car.  
--> To drive a motorbike is more dangerous than to drive a car.  
--> Driving a motorbike is more dangerous than driving a car.  
-
-
1
4) Maát … (thôøi gian) laøm vieäc gì:  
S + spend + time + V-ing hoaëc  
--> It + takes/took + O + time + to V  
Ex: He spent 15 minutes finishing this exercise.  
S + last + time  
-
-
--> It took him 15 minutes to finish this exercise.  
The flight to Hong Kong lasts about 8 hours.  
--> It takes about 8 hours to fly to Hong Kong.  
-
1
5) Thoùi quen hieän taïi v trong quaù khöù:  
S + often/usually + V  
S + find + it + adj + to V  
-
--> S + be used to + V-ing  
Ex: They usually drink beer.  
-
-
--> They are used to drinking beer.  
I don’t find it difficult to get up early.  
--> I am used to getting up early.  
S + used to + V ---> S + no longer + V = S + not … any more/any longer  
Ex: He used to smoke cigarettes.  
-
-
--> He no longer smokes cigarettes.  
--> He doesn’t smoke cigarettes any more / any longer.  
*
LÖU YÙ:  
be used to + V/ be used for + V-ing: coâng duïng moät vaät  
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 48  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
Ex: What is money used for?  
-
--> It is used to buy or sell goods.  
-
--> It is used for buying or selling goods.  
You are never too old to learn.  
Hoïc khoâng bao giôø muoän.  
PHUÏ LUÏC 1:  
ÑOÄNG TÖØ BAÁT QUY TAÉC THÖÔØNG GAËP  
Hieän taïi  
Quaù khöù  
was/were  
Arose  
Bore  
QK PT  
been  
Nghóa  
thì, laø, ôû  
am/is/are  
arise  
bear  
arisen  
borne  
beaten  
become  
begun  
bent  
bet  
bitten  
bled  
blown  
broken  
bred  
brought  
built  
xuaát hieän  
sinh ra  
ñaùnh, ñaäp  
trôû neân  
baét ñaàu  
cuùi, gaäp  
ñaùnh cuoäc  
caén  
chaûy maùu  
thoåi  
laøm vôõ  
nuoâi  
beat  
Beat  
become  
begin  
bend  
bet  
Became  
Began  
Bent  
Bet  
Bit  
bite  
bleed  
blow  
break  
breed  
bring  
build  
burn*  
burst  
buy  
catch  
choose  
come  
cost  
Bled  
Blew  
Broke  
Bred  
Brought  
Built  
Burnt  
Burst  
bought  
Caught  
Chose  
Came  
Cost  
mang  
xaây döïng  
ñoát chaùy  
böøng chaùy  
mua  
baét ñöôïc  
choïn löïa  
ñeán  
burnt  
burst  
bought  
caught  
chosen  
come  
cost  
trò giaù  
creep  
cut  
Crept  
Cut  
crept  
cut  
boø  
caét  
dig  
Dug  
dug  
ñaøo  
do  
Did  
done  
laøm  
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 49  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
draw  
dream*  
drink  
drive  
eat  
fall  
feed  
feel  
Drew  
Dreamt  
Drank  
Drove  
ate  
Fell  
Fed  
Felt  
fought  
Found  
Fit  
Flew  
Forecast  
Forgot  
Forgave  
Froze  
Got  
Gave  
Went  
Ground  
Grew  
Hung  
Had  
drawn  
dreamt  
drunk  
driven  
eaten  
fallen  
fed  
veõ  
mô  
uoáng  
laùi xe  
aên  
teù xuoáng  
cho aên  
caûm thaáy  
ñaùnh nhau  
tìm thaáy  
vöøa vaën  
bay  
döï baùo  
queân  
tha thöù  
ñoâng laïnh  
ñaït ñöôïc  
cho  
ñi  
nghieàn  
moïc  
treo  
coù; duøng  
nghe  
felt  
fight  
find  
fit  
fought  
found  
fit  
fly  
flown  
forecast  
forgot(ten)  
forgiven  
frozen  
got(ten)  
given  
gone  
ground  
grown  
hung  
had  
forecast  
forget  
forgive  
freeze  
get  
give  
go  
grind  
grow  
hang  
have  
hear  
hide  
hit  
Heard  
Hid  
Hit  
heard  
hidden  
hit  
che giaáu  
ñuïng  
hold  
hurt  
keep  
know  
lay  
lead  
learn*  
leave  
lend  
let  
Held  
hurt  
Kept  
Knew  
Laid  
Led  
Learnt  
left  
held  
hurt  
kept  
known  
laid  
led  
learnt  
left  
lent  
let  
caàm,naém,toå chöùc  
laøm ñau  
giöõ  
bieát  
ñaët, ñeå  
daãn daét  
hoïc  
rôøi khoûi  
cho möôïn  
ñeå cho  
ñaùnh maát  
Lent  
Let  
Lost  
lose  
lost  
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 50  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
make  
mean  
meet  
overcome  
pay  
put  
quit  
read  
ride  
ring  
Made  
Meant  
Met  
overcame  
Paid  
made  
meant  
met  
overcome  
paid  
put  
quit  
read  
ridden  
rung  
laøm  
nghóa laø  
gaëp  
vöôït qua  
traû tieàn  
ñaët, ñeå  
thoaùt ra  
ñoïc  
cöôõi, ñaïp xe  
reo, rung  
nhoâ,moäc leân  
chaïy  
Put  
Quit  
Read  
Rode  
Rang  
Rose  
Ran  
rise  
run  
risen  
run  
say  
Said  
said  
noùi  
seek  
sell  
Sought  
Sold  
sought  
sold  
tìm kieám  
baùn  
send  
set  
shake  
shoot  
shut  
sing  
sink  
sit  
Sent  
Set  
Shook  
Shot  
Shut  
Sang  
Sank  
Sat  
sent  
set  
shaken  
shot  
shut  
sung  
sunk  
sat  
göûi ñi  
xeáp ñaët  
laéc  
baén  
ñoùng laïi  
haùt  
chìm, ñaém  
ngoài  
sleep  
slide  
smell*  
speak  
speed  
spell  
spend  
spill  
spread  
stand  
sting  
strike  
swear  
sweep  
Slept  
Slid  
slept  
slid  
nguû  
tröôït ñi  
ngöûi  
Smelt  
Spoke  
Sped  
Spelt  
Spent  
Spilt  
Spread  
Stood  
Stung  
Struck  
Swore  
Swept  
smelt  
spoken  
sped  
spelt  
spent  
spilt  
spread  
stood  
stung  
struck  
sworn  
swept  
noùi  
taêng toác  
ñaùnh vaàn  
tieâu xaøi  
traøn ra  
lan truyeàn  
ñöùng  
chích, ñoát  
ñaùnh  
theà  
queùt  
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
Trang 51  
Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
bôi, loäi  
ñaùnh ñu  
caàm, naém  
daïy  
xeù raùch  
baûo, keå  
suy nghó  
neùm  
aán maïnh  
hieåu  
ñaùnh thöùc  
maëc, ñoäi  
deät  
khoùc  
laøm öôùt  
thaéng  
swim  
swing  
take  
teach  
tear  
Swam  
Swung  
Took  
Taught  
Tore  
swum  
swung  
taken  
taught  
torn  
tell  
told  
told  
think  
throw  
thrust  
understand  
wake  
wear  
weave  
weep  
wet  
Thought  
Threw  
Thrust  
understood  
Woke  
Wore  
Wove  
Wept  
thought  
thrown  
thrust  
understood  
woken  
worn  
woven  
wept  
wet  
Wet  
Won  
win  
won  
write  
Wrote  
written  
vieát  
*
Coù theå theâm “ed” ñeå thaønh laäp V2/3.  
☺ ꢁ  
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Ngöõ phaùp tieáng Anh THPT  
Nguyeãn Ñaëng Hoaøng Duy  
MUÏC LUÏC  
Trang  
BAØI 1: THÌ CUÛA ÑOÄNG TÖØ ............................................................................1  
BAØI 2: THEÅ THUÏ ÑOÄNG..................................................................................7  
BAØI 3: SÖÏ HOAØ HÔÏP GIÖÕA CHUÛ TÖØ VAØ ÑOÄNG TÖØ....................................9  
BAØI 4: CAÂU NOÙI TRÖÏC TIEÁP VAØ GIAÙN TIEÁP ...........................................11  
BAØI 5: CAÂU ÑIEÀU KIEÄN VAØ CAÂU AO ÖÔÙC ..............................................13  
BAØI 6: SÖÏ ÑAÛO NGÖÕ .....................................................................................14  
BAØI 7: TÖØ ÑÒNH LÖÔÏNG ..............................................................................15  
BAØI 8: MEÄNH ÑEÀ TÍNH TÖØ VAØ MEÄNH ÑEÀ TRAÏNG TÖØ .........................17  
BAØI 9: DANH ÑOÄNG TÖØ VAØ ÑOÄNG TÖØ NGUYEÂN MAÃU COÙ “TO” ........22  
BAØI 10: TÖØ LOAÏI ...........................................................................................23  
BAØI 11: SO SAÙNH TÍNH TÖØ VAØ TRAÏNG TÖØ ..............................................36  
BAØI 12: CAÙCH THAØNH LAÄP TÖØ..................................................................39  
BAØI 13: CHUYEÅN ÑOÅI CAÂU ........................................................................46  
PHUÏ LUÏC: ÑOÄNG TÖØ BAÁT QUY TAÉC THÖÔØNG GAËP .............................49  
TAØI LIEÄU THAM KHAÛO  
1
2
. John Eastwood, OXFORD GUIDE TO ENGLISH GRAMMAR, Oxford  
University Press, 1994  
. Raymond Murphy, ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN USE, Cambridge University  
Press, 2000  
3
4
. Haø Vaên Böûu, NHÖÕNG MAÃU CAÂU TIEÁNG ANH, NXB TP. HCM, 1998  
. Mai Lan Höông – Nguyeãn Thanh Loan, NGÖÕ PHAÙP TIEÁNG ANH, NXB  
Treû, 2003  
5
6
. Thaùi Hoaøng Nguyeân – Ñoã Vaên Thaûo, BAØI TAÄP NGÖÕ PHAÙP TIEÁNG ANH  
NAÂNG CAO, NXB Giaùo duïc, 2003  
. Nguyeãn Vaên Thoï – Huyønh Kim Tuaán, BAØI TAÄP LUYEÄN TIEÁNG ANH  
THPT: NGÖÕ PHAÙP, NXB Giaùo duïc, 2005  
7
8
9
. Leâ Duõng, NGÖÕ PHAÙP TIEÁNG ANH CAÊN BAÛN, NXB Giaùo duïc, 2006  
. Leâ Duõng, NGÖÕ PHAÙP TIEÁNG ANH NAÂNG CAO, NXB Giaùo duïc, 2000  
. Vónh Khueâ – Traàn Vaên Nhaân, CHUYEÂN ÑEÀ BOÀI DÖÔÕNG ENGLISH 12,  
NXB Ñoàng Nai, 1997  
1
0. Song Phuùc – Leâ Nguyeãn Minh Thoï, BÍ QUYEÁT LAØM BAØI TAÄP CHUYEÅN  
ÑOÅI CAÁU TRUÙC CAÂU TRONG TIEÁNH ANH, NXB Giaùo duïc, 2004  
Study, study more, study forever!!!  
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